Panel Data

… a core concept in Quantitative Methods and Atlas104

Concept description

Wikipedia (reference below) defines panel data (also called longitudinal data) as “multi-dimensional data involving measurements over time.”

Wikipedia notes that:

“Panel data contain observations of multiple phenomena obtained over multiple time periods for the same firms or individuals. Time series and cross-sectional data can be thought of as special cases of panel data that are in one dimension only (one panel member or individual for the former, one time point for the latter). A study that uses panel data is called a longitudinal study or panel study.”


Wikipedia, Panel data, at, accessed 13 May 2018.

Topic, subject and Atlas course

Research Design (core topic) in Quantitative Methods and Atlas104.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified 13 May 2018.

Image: The Economic Society, Events,, accessed 13 May 2018.