Hogwood & Gunn’s Elements for Successful Implementation

… a core concept in Implementation and Delivery and Atlas107

Concept description

Leslie Pal (reference below) summarizes the elements for successful implementation set out in the classic work of Hogwood and Gunn.

Pal writes (p. 187):

“Box 5.2 draws on Hogwood and Gunn’s (1984, Chapter 11) classic list of requirements. The image of the successful implementer that arises from this list of requirements is someone or some organization that has brains, strong planning capacity, resources, authority to act, and complete understanding of the goals. It is, in short, a world without friction, without scarcity, without confusion, miscommunication, conflict, or misunderstanding. It is also a world of hierarchy and power, where the implementer decides and those decisions cascade down to the final point of delivery without obstruction or misinterpretation. Little wonder, then, that perfect implementation almost never happens, and, as Hogwood and Gunn (1984) conclude, some degree of failure “is almost inevitable” (p. 198).

See also: Implementation Theory.

Atlas topic, subject, and course

The Study of Implementation and Delivery (core topic) in Implementation and Delivery and Atlas107


Leslie Pal (2014), Beyond Policy Analysis – Public Issue Management in Turbulent Times, Fifth Edition, Nelson Education, Toronto. See Beyond Policy Analysis – Book Highlights.

Hogwood, B. W., & Gunn, L. A. (1984). Policy analysis for the real world, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified 12 April 2017.

Image: Advantage Performance, at http://www.advantageperformance.com/story/insuring-a-successful-implementation/, accessed 12 April 2017.