The Study of Leadership and Communication

… a core topic in Leadership Skills and Atlas109
and study materials for Week 12 of Atlas206 Internship Reading

TheoriesAndStylesTopic description

This topic introduces students to the theories and writing on leadership and to the various styles of leadership that this literature depicts.

Note: In addition to elaborating a core topic in Leadership Skills and Atlas109, the concepts below constitute study materials for Week 12 of Atlas206 Internship Reading. The Atlas quiz can be found at Quiz 12 – The Study of Leadership and Communication. All 15 quizzes for Atlas206 Internship Reading are available at Concept Quizzes for Atlas206 Internship Reading.

Topic learning outcome

Upon completing this topic the student will be familiar with the range of theories on leadership and be able to describe the concepts listed below.

Core concepts associated with this topic
Autocratic Leadership

Ganz’s Pedagogy as Practice

Heifetz’s Adaptive Work

Kouzes and Posner’s Leadership Model

Laissez-Faire Leadership

Lewin’s 3 Leadership Styles

Participative Leadership

Pfeffer’s Management BS Critique

Situational Theory of Leadership

Skills and Tacit Knowledge

Teamwork and Tribal Instincts

Trait Theory of Leadership

Trust

UK Civil Service Leadership Statement

Williams’ Real vs Counterfeit Leadership

Work Avoidance Mechanisms

Recommended 2 hours of study for Week 12 of Atlas206 Internship Reading

Concept pages above.

BBC Imagine (2014), Who’s Afraid of Machiavelli (60-minute documentary posted to YouTube on 22 June 2014, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fphTuyJXTcQ, accessed 30 December 2015. (Interested readers can view a scanned pdf of a 1905 edition from University of Toronto’s Robarts Library at https://archive.org/details/machiavelli00machuoft, accessed 30 December 2015.)

The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli – Animated Book Review, a wry 10-minute video published on YouTube on 22 June 2015 by FightMediocrity, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SSV6mwPfTI, accessed 31 December 2015.

Complete Quiz 12 – The Study of Leadership and Communication.

Recommended 10 hours of study for Atlas109 Leadership and Communication

Concept pages above.

Complete Quiz 12 – The Study of Leadership and Communication.

Joshua Rothman (2016), Shut Up and Sit Down – Why the leadership industry rules, The New Yorker, 29 February 2016 Issue, at http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/02/29/our-dangerous-leadership-obsession, accessed 28 February 2016.

Eileen Zimmerman (2015), Jeffrey Pfeffer – Why the Leadership Industry Has Failed, Insights by Stanford Business, 9 September 2015, at https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/insights/jeffrey-pfeffer-why-leadership-industry-has-failed, accessed 29 February 2016.

Matthew Stewart (2006), The Management Myth – Most of management theory is inane, writes our correspondent, the founder of a consulting firm, The Atlantic, June 2006, at http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2006/06/the-management-myth/304883/, accessed 30 December 2015.

Amazon Canada’s “Bestsellers in Leadership” list at http://www.amazon.ca/Bestsellers-Books-%20Leadership/zgbs/books/952286/ref=zg_bs_nav_b_4_952280, accessed 30 December 2015.

BBC Imagine (2014), Who’s Afraid of Machiavelli (60-minute documentary posted to YouTube on 22 June 2014, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fphTuyJXTcQ, accessed 30 December 2015. (Interested readers can view a scanned pdf of a 1905 edition from University of Toronto’s Robarts Library at https://archive.org/details/machiavelli00machuoft, accessed 30 December 2015.)

The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli – Animated Book Review, a wry 10-minute video published on YouTube on 22 June 2015 by FightMediocrity, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SSV6mwPfTI, accessed 31 December 2015.

Robert Greene (1998), The 48 Laws of Power, Preface and Table of Contents. Available at “Look Inside” at http://www.amazon.ca/gp/product/B0024CEZR6/ref=dp-kindle-redirect?ie=UTF8&btkr=1, accessed 30 December 2015. See the 2004 Between the Lines interview with Robert Greene, posted to YouTube on 15 May 2015 at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SJE3w04zdwk, accessed 22 January 2016. See also the two Animated Book Reviews by FightMediocrity on YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kru-CkgDLpk and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKvMvX67ik4, accessed 30 December 2015.

The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership® Model online at http://www.leadershipchallenge.com/About-section-Our-Approach.aspx, accessed 30 December 2015.

Claudio Feser, Fernanda Mayol, and Ramesh Srinivasan (2015), Decoding leadership – What really matters, McKinsey Quarterly, January 2015, at http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/leading_in_the_21st_century/decoding_leadership_what_really_matters?cid=other-eml-ttn-mip-mck-oth-1512, accessed 6 January 2016.

Kotter, J. P. (1990), What Leaders Really Do. Harvard Business Review

Kotter, J. P. (1995), Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73(2), 59-67.

Heifetz, R. A., & Laurie, D. L. (1997), The work of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 75, 124-134.

Heifetz, R. A. and Linsky, M. (2002). A Survival Guide for Leaders, Harvard Business Review.

Heifetz, R. A. (2010), Adaptive Work, Journal of the Kansas Leadership Center, at https://www.emporia.edu/dotAsset/cc6c29e4-0475-48fd-b9ec-55619cc49bdd.pdf, accessed 5 January 2016.

Goffee, R. and Jones, G. (2000), Why Should Anyone Be Led By You? Harvard Business Review 78: 63-70.

Goffee, R. and Jones, G. (2010), What Makes a Leader. Business Strategy Review. 3rd Quarter: p64-68.

Marshall Ganz and Emily Lin. (2011), Learning to Lead – Pedagogy in Practice
Chapter 22 in the Handbook for Teaching Leadership. Ed. Nitin Nohria, Rakesh Khurana and Scott Snook. (SAGE Publications), p.353-367, at http://marshallganz.usmblogs.com/files/2012/08/Chapter-8-Ganz-Lin1.pdf, accessed 6 January 2016.

Goffee, Rob and Jones, Gareth. 2005. Managing Authenticity: The Paradox of Great Leadership, Harvard Business Review, December 2005, at https://hbr.org/2005/12/managing-authenticity-the-paradox-of-great-leadership, accessed 31 December 2015.

Bennis, W. and Thomas, R. J. 2002. “Crucibles of Leadership.” Harvard Business Review, p97-113, at https://hbr.org/2002/09/crucibles-of-leadership, accessed 30 December 2015.

Cherry, K. A. (2006). Leadership styles. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/leadstyles.htm, accessed 30 December 2015.

Cherry, K. A. (2014). What Is the Situational Theory of Leadership? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/fl/What-Is-the-Situational-Theory-of-Leadership.htm, accessed 31 December 2015.

Recommended readings in MPP and MPA courses

University of Toronto PPG2014

Dean Williams, Real Leadership, all of Chapter 1 (“Odin, Enron, and the Apes”), pp.1-30, and pp. 31-37 from Chapter 2 (“Diagnostic Work”).

Amazon Canada’s “Bestsellers in Leadership” list at http://www.amazon.ca/Bestsellers-Books-%20Leadership/zgbs/books/952286/ref=zg_bs_nav_b_4_952280, (please browse all 100).

Robert Greene, The 48 Laws of Power, Preface and Table of Contents. (Course Pack)

The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership®”; online at http://www.leadershipchallenge.com/About-section-Our-Approach.aspx

Judith Humphrey, Speaking As a Leader: How to Lead Every Time You Speak…From Board Rooms to Meeting Rooms, From Town Halls to Phone Calls” Jossey-Bass, 2012.

Concept comprehension questions

CCQ206.12.01. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the autocratic leadership style, choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The autocratic leadership style involves authoritarian control over a group.

b. People who abuse an autocratic leadership style are often viewed as bossy, controlling, and dictatorial, which can lead to resentment among group members.

c. Autocratic leadership is a leadership style characterized by individual control over all decisions and little input from group members.

d. Autocratic leadership should be avoided as it is never an effective leadership style.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.12.02. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Ganz’s pedagogy as practice choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Pedagogy as practice takes experiential learning a step farther and requires that teachers practice what they teach in the way they teach it – teaching leadership by practicing leadership.

b. Practice as pedagogy dictates that instructors accept responsibility for enabling others to achieve purpose in the face of uncertainty.

c. Project-focused learning is based on the conviction that if teachers model leadership by enabling students to achieve purpose in the face of the uncertainty of their projects, then students begin to actually learn leadership through their experience of commitment to an organizing project.

d. Scaffolded learning is based on the conviction that learning new skills requires venturing beyond the limits of one’s perceived competence – a step both exciting and frightening, and one that requires motivational, conceptual, and behavioral resources.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.12.03. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Heifetz’s adaptive work choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Adaptive work involves not only the assessment of reality but also the clarification of values.

b. Adaptive work is the work required by an individual or a group to adapt to survive and thrive in a changing world.

c. Adaptive work consists of efforts to close the gap between reality and a host of values.

d. Adaptive work is relatively easy to do.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.12.04. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Kouzes’ and Posner’s leadership model choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The model states that leadership is not about personality; it’s about behavior, an observable set of skills and abilities.

b. The model states that the most effective leaders are those that are able to quickly adapt their style to the situation and recognize cues for required change.

c. The model states that that leaders should establish principles concerning the way people should be treated and the way goals should be pursued.

d. The model emphasizes that leaders should inspire a shared vision and enable others to act.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.12.05. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the laissez-faire leadership style, choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Laissez-faire leadership is a type of leadership style in which leaders are hands-off and allow group members to make the decisions.

b. Laissez-faire leadership is useful in situations where group members lack the knowledge or experience they need to complete tasks and make decisions.

c. A leader who demonstrates laissez-faire provides the tools and resources needed.

d. Laissez-faire leadership can be effective in situations where group members are highly skilled, motivated, and capable of working on their own.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.12.06. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the participative leadership style, choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Group members are encouraged to share ideas and opinions, even though the leader retains the final say over decisions.

b. The leader is charged with deciding who is in the group and who gets to contribute to the decisions that are made.

c. Participative leadership can lead to communication failures and uncompleted projects.

d. Participative leadership is most effective in situations where group members are highly skilled, motivated, and capable of working on their own.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.12.07. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Pfeffer’s management BS critique choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Pfeffer argues that corporate-leadership seminars are usually a good investment in producing better leaders.

b. Pfeffer argues that the leadership industry has not been successful partly because its recommendations are based on an ideal world, rather than on the real world.

c. Pfeffer’s book points to the ways in which leadership prescriptions have actually been problematic for leaders and proved themselves to be counterproductive.

d. Pfeffer claims that the general perception of what makes a good leader has resulted in an enormous disconnect between what actually makes individuals successful and what we think makes them successful.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.12.08. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the situational theory of leadership choose the one that is most valid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The situational theory of leadership suggests that no single leadership style is “best” – the type of leadership and strategies that are best-suited to the task depends on the situation at hand.

b. According to this theory, the most effective leaders are those that are able to adapt their style to the situation and look at cues such as the type of task, the nature of the group, and other factors that might contribute to getting the job done.

c. Effective leaders must base their behaviour on the developmental level of group members for specific tasks, where the developmental level is determined by each individual’s level of competence and commitment

d. An effective leader will match his or her behavior to the developmental skill of each subordinate for the task at hand.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.12.09. Among the statements a-d pertaining to skills and tacit knowledge choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Skill is the ability to do something that comes from training, experience, or practice.

b. Tacit knowledge is precise and can be described textbooks, procedures and manuals.

c. We know things that we cannot explain; we cannot explain everything we know.

d. Tacit knowledge plays a crucial role in skills acquisition.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.12.10. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the trait theory of leadership choose the one that is most valid or choose e if all are invalid.

a. The trait theory of leadership suggests that no single leadership style is “best” – the type of leadership and strategies that are best-suited to the task depends on the situation at hand.

b. The trait theory of leadership is part of Lewin’s 3 leadership theories.

c. The trait theory of leadership suggests that leadership is not about personality; it’s about behavior – an observable set of skills and abilities.

d. The trait theory of leadership focuses on identifying specific characteristics that are linked to successful leadership across a variety of situations.

e. All of a-d are invalid.

CCQ206.12.11. Among the statements a-d pertaining to UK Civil Service Leadership Statement 2015 choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Civil Service Leadership Statement was released by the UK Cabinet Office in February 2015 following a year of consultation and is intended to reflect the positive attributes that civil servants want to see in their leaders and their own approach to leadership.

b. The Civil Service Leadership Statement admonishes civil servant leaders to be inspiring, confident, and empowering.

c. The Civil Service Leadership Statement is intended to reflect the positive attributes that civil servants want to see in their leaders and their own approach to leadership.

d. The Statement challenges leaders to hold a mirror up to their own behaviours, to be honest about areas they are falling short in, and to take appropriate action to address them.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.12.12. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Williams’ distinction between real and counterfeit leadership choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Real leadership gets people to face the reality and engage the group to do adaptive work.

b. Counterfeit leadership occurs when group members may not have the necessary knowledge or expertise to make quality contributions to the decision-making process.

c. Counterfeit leadership is indicated by a preoccupation with dominance and an unwillingness to explore beyond one’s comfort zone to find a solution.

d. Real leadership is the willingness to be responsible and involves the pursuit of wisdom.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified on 21 April 2017.

Image: Washington Post, Jena McGregor, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/on-leadership/wp/2015/05/21/a-leaders-reading-list-with-no-business-books-on-it/, accessed on 19 December 2015 and Geylang Methodist School, at Washington Post, Jena McGregor, at http://www.geylangmethodistpri.moe.edu.sg/cos/o.x?c=/wbn/pagetree&rid=1208240, accessed on 19 December 2015.