Persuading

… a core topic in Communication Skills and Atlas 109
and study materials for Week 4 of Atlas206 Internship Reading

3-20FrameworkTopic description

This topic introduces students to effective practices of persuasion using a framework derived from Aristotle’s 3 Rhetorical Appeals and Orren’s 20 Principles of Persuasion.

Note: In addition to elaborating a core topic in Leadership Skills and Atlas109, the concepts below constitute study materials for Week 4 of Atlas206 Internship Reading. The Atlas quiz can be found at Quiz 4 – Persuading. All 15 quizzes for Atlas206 Internship Reading are available at Concept Quizzes for Atlas206 Internship Reading.

Topic learning outcome

Appropriately utilize 20 practices of persuasion to public management problems.

Clustering the practices under logos, ethos, and pathos

Orren organizes his 20 principles under the three clusters, corresponding to the three elements in Aristotle’s On Rhetoric:

  • logos – logical, coherent and cogent argument
  • ethos – characteristics of the messenger
  • pathos – motives, feelings, attitudes, and knowledge of the audience

We have configured Orren’s principles, slightly edited, as effective practice concepts in the table below. The effective practices are listed in approximate order of importance (in the view of the Atlas editors). The effective practice names are slightly modified and the order is slightly different from those in Orren’s 20 Principles of Persuasion; the effective practices that correspond to Cialdini’s 6 Principles of Persuasion Science are marked with an asterisk (*).

Core concepts that can be viewed as effective practices
20 EFFECTIVE PRACTICES OF PERSUASION
LOGOS
(logical, coherent and cogent argument)

Simplicity and Clarity

Storytelling

Contrast

Salience

Scarcity*

Repetition

Analogies and Metaphors

Counter-intuitive Facts and Arguments

ETHOS
(characteristics of the messenger)

Authority and Credibility*

Liking*

Empathy and Listening

Personalizing

Reciprocity*

Humour

PATHOS
(motives, feelings, attitudes, and knowledge of the audience)

Knowing the Audience

Knowing the Context

Types of Attitude Change

Conformity, Similarity, and Social Proof*

Consistency and Commitment*

Active Audience

 

Additional core concepts associated with this topic
Assertiveness and Likeability

Aristotle’s 3 Rhetorical Appeals – Legos, Ethos, and Pathos

Consulting Stakeholders and Engaging Citizens

Cialdini’s 6 Principles of Persuasion Science

Making Slide Presentations

Narrative Theory

Orren’s 20 Principles of Persuasion

Persuasion

Primers for Polemicists – Comparing Rules from Harries and Alinsky

Atlas resource pages for this topic

Concepts for Case Competitions

Recommended 3 hours of study for Week 4 of Atlas206 Internship Reading

Concept pages above.

Gary Oren, Excellence in Communications lecture (67 minutes) at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gyixiKjctdI, accessed 29 December 2015.

Complete Quiz 4 – Persuading.

Recommended 10 hours of study for Atlas109 Leadership and Communication

Concept pages above.

Complete Quiz 4 – Persuading.

Persuasion Frameworks

Gary Oren, Excellence in Communications lecture (67 minutes) at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gyixiKjctdI, accessed 29 December 2015.

Gary Oren, PowerPoint presentation in 2005 to the Mortgage Bankers Association at events.mortgagebankers.org/presidents2005/…/Orren_presentation.ppt, uploaded to the Atlas at Persuasion: The Science and Art of Effective Influence.

Influence at Work (12-minute YouTube video narrated by Dr. Robert Cialdini and Steve Martin, published on 26 November 2014) at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cFdCzN7RYbw, accessed 31 December 2015.

Marie Danziger, How to be Persuasive, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HOW-TO-BE-PERSUASIVE_new2013.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, Guidelines for Interactive Persuasion, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/GUIDELINES-FOR-INTERACTIVE-PERSUASION_new2013.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, Some Characteristics of Eloquence, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/SOME-CHARACTERISTICS-OF-ELOQUENCE_new2013.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Bill Berkowitz, Using Principles of Persuasion, Community Tool Box, at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/participation/promoting-interest/principles-of-persuasion/main, accessed 23 January 2016.

Steve Booth-Butterfield, 2011, Primers for Polemicists, Persuasion Blog, at http://healthyinfluence.com/wordpress/2011/04/02/primers-for-polemicists/, accessed 21 January 2016.

Owen Harries, “Primer for Polemicists,” Commentary, September 1984, pp. 57-60, at https://www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/a-primer-for-polemicists/, and reproduced by the Libertarian Alliance in 1991 at http://www.libertarian.co.uk/lapubs/tactn/tactn010.htm, accessed 21 January 2016.

Cherry, K. A. (2015). How to Become a Master of Persuasion – Persuasion Techniques that Really Work, at http://psychology.about.com/od/socialpsychology/a/persuasiontech.htm, accessed 31 December 2015.

Aristotle’s Rhetoric, Book 1, Chapters 2 and 3, as excerpted in americanrhetoric.com, at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/aristotleonrhetoric.htm, accessed 27 December 2015.

Simplicity and Clarity

Brad Bridges, 10 Ways to Clarify Your Message as a Public Speaker, at http://www.bradbridges.net/2014/10/27/10-ways-clarify-your-message-public-speaker/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Stephen Boyd, Keep Your Presentation Simple, at http://www.speaking-tips.com/Articles/Keep-Your-Presentation-Simple.aspx, accessed 23 January 2016.

Sanders Communication, This is why you should keep it simple, at http://sanders.se/keep-it-simple/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Authority and Credibility

Marie Danziger, Creating Your Speaker Persona: A Little Larger than Life, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HO_WEEKS_Speaker-Persona_10-12.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Boundless.com, Establishing Credibility, at https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/organizing-and-outlining-the-speech-10/introduction-53/establishing-credibility-212-10648/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Voice & Speech, Professional Credibility, at http://voiceandspeech.com/articles/professional-credibility.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Changing Minds, Speaker Credibility, at http://changingminds.org/techniques/speaking/articles/credibility.htm, accessed 23 January 2016.

Knowing the Audience

Boundless.com, The Benefits of Understanding Your Audience, at https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/analyzing-the-audience-7/the-importance-of-audience-analysis-37/the-benefits-of-understanding-your-audience-161-8007/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Richard Atkins, Know Your Audience, Ladders, at http://www.theladders.com/career-advice/know-your-audience, accessed 23 January 2016.

Tom Ricci, Public Speaking: Know Your Audience, at https://www.asme.org/career-education/articles/public-speaking/public-speaking-know-your-audience, accessed 23 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, How Listeners Think, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HOW-LISTENERS-THINK_new2013.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Storytelling

Marshall Ganz, Public Narrative – Self & Us & Now, Worksheet at http://marshallganz.usmblogs.com/files/2012/08/Public-Narrative-Worksheet-Fall-2013-.pdf, accessed 6 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, Persuasive Storytelling, HKS Communications Program, at Marie Danziger, Some Characteristics of Eloquence, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Persuasive-Storytelling-new.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016., accessed 23 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, Some Rhetorical Uses of Story, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/SOME-RHETORICAL-USES-OF-STORY.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, Some Suggestions about Storytelling, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/SOME-SUGGESTIONS-ABOUT-STORYTELLING_new20131.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Boundless.com, How and When to Use Narrative, at https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/, accessed 20 January 2016.

Boundless.com, The Importance of Stories, accessed 20 January 2016.

John Baldoni, Using Stories to Persuade, Harvard Business Review, 24 March 2011, at https://hbr.org/2011/03/using-stories-as-a-tool-of-per, accessed 18 January 2016.

Peter Guber, “The Four Truths of Storytelling,” Harvard Business Review, Dec. 2007. At https://hbr.org/2007/12/the-four-truths-of-the-storyteller/es, accessed 27 December 2015.

Liking

John Fallon, The Principle of Liking, one-minute YouTube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ksXYL4KJkes, accessed 23 January 2016.

Edward McBeth, Secrets of likeability and power! at http://gurueduardo.blogspot.ca/2013/04/the-idea-of-self-made-man-or-woman-is.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Bridget Beirne, How to Increase Your “Likability” to Benefit Persuasive Speech Topics, at http://www.ovationcomm.com/insights-on-communication-skills-and-relationship-building/insights-on-communication-skills/how-to-increase-your-likability-to-benefit-persuasive-speech-topics, accessed 23 January 2016.

Active Presence, Likeability – Methods of Influence for Persuasive Presentations, at http://www.activepresence.com/blog/likeability-methods-of-influence-for-persuasive-presentations#.VqPBPeT2bRY=, accessed 23 January 2016.

Knowing the Context

Boundless.com, Situational and Environmental Context, at https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/introduction-to-public-speaking-1/elements-of-speech-communication-21/situational-and-environmental-context-103-4186/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Saylor.org, Speaking Contexts That Affect Delivery, at https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_stand-up-speak-out-the-practice-and-ethics-of-public-speaking/s17-02-speaking-contexts-that-affect-.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Contrast

Presentation Magazine, Speech Making Technique – The compare and contrast, at http://www.presentationmagazine.com/compare-contrast-178.htm, accessed 22 January 2016.

Personal Success Today, Adding Contrast to Your Speech, at http://personalsuccesstoday.com/adding-contrast-to-your-speech/, accessed 22 January 2016.

Nancy Duarte’s 2010 TEDxEast talk at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1nYFpuc2Umk, accessed 22 January 2016.

Empathy and Listening

MindTools, Empathy at Work – Developing Skills to Understand Other People, at https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/EmpathyatWork.htm, accessed 23 January 2016.

Jessica Stillman, 3 Habits That Will Increase Your Empathy, at http://www.inc.com/jessica-stillman/3-habits-that-will-increase-your-empathy.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Boundless.com, Rules to Follow When Listening, at https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/public-speaking-ethics-2/significance-of-ethics-in-public-speaking-23/rules-to-follow-when-listening-111-7088/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Julian Treasure: 5 ways to listen better, TED Talk published on 29 July 2011, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cSohjlYQI2A, accessed 2 January 2016.

Julian Treasure: How to speak so that people want to listen, TED Talk published on 27 June 2014, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIho2S0ZahI, accessed 21 January 2016.

Listening Skills from SkillsYouNeed, at http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ips/listening-skills.html, accessed 21 January 2016.

Active Listening from MindToods at https://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/ActiveListening.htm, accessed 21 January 2016.

Types of Attitude Change

Boundless.com, Overall Psychology of Your Audience: Values, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Needs, at https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/analyzing-the-audience-7/contextual-factors-to-consider-39/overall-psychology-of-your-audience-values-beliefs-attitudes-and-needs-172-8320/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Salience

SHKaminsky.com, Strategies for persuading different kinds of audiences, at http://www.shkaminski.com/Classes/Handouts/pers1.htm, accessed 23 January 2016.

Personalizing

Dean Hyers, SagePresence, When Do I Use My Personal Story in My Presentation or Speech? at http://sagepresence.com/when-do-i-use-my-personal-story-in-my-presentation-or-speech/, accessed 22 January 2016

Presentation Zen, On sharing your own personal story to make a difference, at http://www.presentationzen.com/presentationzen/2013/11/on-being-different-the-art-of-sharing-your-own-story.html, accessed 22 January 2016.

Whitson Gordon, Lifehacker.com, Give a Better Presentation by Telling a Personal Story, at http://lifehacker.com/5970280/give-a-better-presentation-by-telling-a-personal-story, accessed 22 January 2016.

Malcolm Kushner, Presentations for Dummies, Using Stories as a Presentation Tool, http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/using-stories-as-a-presentation-tool.html, accessed 22 January 2016.

Conformity, Similarity, and Social Proof

Elizabeth Levey, How to Use the Principle of Social Proof in Persuasive Speeches, at http://www.ovationcomm.com/insights-on-communication-skills-and-relationship-building/how-to-use-the-principle-of-social-proof-in-persuasive-speeches, accessed 23 January 2016.

John Fallon, Principle of Social Proof, 1-minute YouTube video, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yU7r-jX3ju4, accessed 23 January 2016.

Kendra Cherry, What is Conformity, at http://psychology.about.com/od/socialinfluence/f/conformity.htm, accessed 23 January 2016.

Scarcity

Bridget Beirne, Why the Principle of Scarcity Can Inspire Persuasive Speech Audiences, at http://www.ovationcomm.com/insights-on-communication-skills-and-relationship-building/why-the-principle-of-scarcity-can-inspire-persuasive-speech-audiences, accessed 23 January 2016.

John Fallon, Principle of Scarcity, one-minute YouTube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIk8E6aWlPo, accessed 23 January 2016.

Reciprocity

John Fallon, Principle of Reciprocation, one-minute YouTube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Duu3hfD3Mk, accessed 23 January 2016.

Bridget Beirne, Want to Persuade Your Presentation Audience? Give Them Something, at http://www.ovationcomm.com/insights-on-communication-skills-and-relationship-building/trying-to-persuade-in-a-professional-presentation-what-are-you-giving-them, accessed 23 January 2016.

Bronwyn Ritchie, Using reciprocity to persuade without manipulating – “Do the right thing,” at http://www.pivotalpublicspeaking.com/blog/using-reciprocity-to-persuade-without-manipulating-do-the-right-thing/#.VqQqWOT2bRY, accessed 23 January 2016.

Consistency and Commitment

Bridget Beirne, How to Use the Principle of Consistency in Professional Presentations, at http://www.ovationcomm.com/insights-on-communication-skills-and-relationship-building/how-to-use-the-principle-of-consistency-in-professional-presentations, accessed 23 January 2016.

John Fallon, The Principle of Commitment and Consistency, one-minute YouTube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a_NN_v78hbQ, accessed 23 January 2016.

Analogies and Metaphors

Marie Danziger, Some Rhetorical Uses of Metaphor, Harvard Kennedy School, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/SOME-RHETORICAL-USES-OF-METAPHOR_new-20131.pdf, accessed 17 January 2016.

Peter Jeff, How to Make Metaphorical Magic in Your Speech, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/metaphor-speech-examples/, accessed 17 January 2016.

Henneke, How to Use the Persuasive Power of Metaphors, at http://www.enchantingmarketing.com/how-to-use-metaphors/, accessed 17 January 2016.

Anne Miller, Dazzling Speech Openers, at http://westsidetoastmasters.com/article_reference/dazzling_speech_openers.html, accessed 17 January 2016.

Keith Davis, A splash of colour, at http://easypublicspeaking.co.uk/word-pictures-using-imagery-in-speeches/, accessed 17 January 2016.

Humour

Marty Brounstein and Malcolm Kushner, How to Use Humor in Your Presentation, at http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-use-humor-in-your-presentation.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Simply Speaking, How to Use Humor in Your Presentations, at http://www.simplyspeakinginc.com/humor-in-presentations.htm, accessed 23 January 2016.

Rana Sinha, Presentations Skills – Do’s and Dont’s of Using Humour in Presentations and Speeches, at http://www.dot-connect.com/Presentation_skills_Dos_and_Donts_of_using_Humour_in_presentations_and_speeches.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Active Audience

Lisa B Marshall, How to Engage Your Audience, at http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/business-career/public-speaking/how-to-engage-your-audience, accessed 23 January 2016.

Ginger Public Speaking, The best way to engage your audience, at http://www.gingerpublicspeaking.com/engage-your-audience/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Darlene Price, Presentation Tips: 8 Ways to Captivate and Engage Your Audience, at http://playbook.amanet.org/presentation-tips-8-ways-to-engage-your-audience/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Counter-intuitive Sources and Arguments

Garr Reynolds, Start your presentation with PUNCH, at http://www.presentationzen.com/presentationzen/2010/10/start-your-presentation-with-punch.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Recommended readings in MPP and MPA courses 

See all the readings for Gary Orren’s course: Harvard MLD342 Persuasion – The Science and Art of Effective Influence.

Concept confirmation questions

CCQ206.04.01. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Aristotle’s 3 rhetorical appeals choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Logos, ethos and pathos are the three rhetorical appeals.

b. Logos refers to creating a logical argument, and one of the principles is simplicity.

c. Ethos refers to the emotional connection to the audience and one of the principles is knowing your audience.

d. Pathos refers to the ability to share your own feelings and reactions, and one of the principles is to be personal.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.02. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Cialdini’s 6 principles of persuasion science choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The six principles are reciprocity, scarcity, authority, consistency, liking, and consensus.

b. The reciprocity principle states that people will do things they see other people doing.

c. The consistency principle states that people are more likely to honor that commitment because of establishing that idea or goal as being congruent with their self-image.

d. The liking principle states that people are easily persuaded by other people that they like.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.03. Among the statements a-d pertaining to simplicity and clarity choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Simplicity and clarity is the most important in the logos cluster of persuasion principles.

b. Simplicity and clarity is usually a challenge because public management subjects are complex.

c. Research suggests that the maximum number of points that people can remember in a speech is five.

d. Communicators should keep asking themselves “What is the one thing the audience will remember?”

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.04. Among the statements a-d pertaining to storytelling choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Stories are used extensively in religious texts and lead to higher retention by  listeners because they represent an intrinsic reality and thus have credibility.

b. Stories tend to follow a universal structure, described by German novelist Gustav Freytag as a pyramid with seven elements.

c. At the dénouement any remaining secrets, questions or mysteries which remain after the resolution are solved by the characters or explained by the author.

d. The story structure is less useful for short presentations than for long presentations.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.05. Among the statements a-d pertaining to contrast choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Contrast is one of the logos principles of persuasion.

b. Useful contrast includes that between what is and what can be.

c. Useful contrast includes that between effective and ineffective.

d. Contrast refers to the need to ensure that the speaker is well lit compared to the background.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.06. Among the statements a-d pertaining to salience choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The purpose of persuasion is to make a matter that you are concerned with salient for another person.

b. The term salience comes from the Latin salire, meaning to leap, and something with salience leaps out at you because it is unique or special in some way.

c. People will engage, and perhaps be open to persuasion, when an issue has high salience, that is the issue is important and relevant to them.

d. The concept of salience plays a key role in the theory of agenda-setting, the psychological process whereby the importance of an issue to a person is affected by the nature and extent of media coverage.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.07. Among the statements a-d pertaining to scarcity choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Opportunities seem more valuable when their availability is limited, and that this principle applies to information and ideas.

b. Loss appears to be a more motivating concept than gain.

c. Couch your persuasion argument in terms of what an audience stands to lose, not just in terms of the anticipated benefits.

d. Information that is scarce, new, or exclusive should be stated later in a persuasion message, giving the audience something to look forward to.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.08. Among the statements a-d pertaining to repetition choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Repetition is a classic rhetorical technique and there are innumerable sources of advice on when and how to use it in speeches and presentations.

b. An example is repetition of an idea first in negative terms and then in positive terms.

c. An example is repetition of words at the start of clauses.

d. An example is repetition of a phrase (usually a question) to stress a point.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.09. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the analogies and metaphors choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A metaphor can be used to express an abstract idea in concrete terms such as an 800-pound gorilla in the meeting room.

b. A metaphor can be used to generate new experiential frameworks to understand an old problem, such as thinking of your organization as a human body and try to identify the various members with the different parts.

c. A metaphor can be used to express an opinion indirectly, such as “The former prime minister is still a courtesan to public opinion.”

d. It is impossible to overuse analogies and metaphors in a presentation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.10. Among the statements a-d pertaining to counter-intuitive facts and arguments choose the one that is most valid or choose e if all are invalid.

a. Novel, fresh, surprising information may be necessary to cause people to modify their predispositions and beliefs.

b. The emotion of surprise increases alertness and gets people to focus.

c. As an example, instead of the normal formal and slow opening, consider opening with a shocking quote or a question with a surprising answer or a revealing statistic that goes against conventional wisdom.

d. As an example, start with a powerful image that’s never been seen, or reveal a relevant short story that’s never been heard, or show a statistic from a brand new study that gives new insights into a problem.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.11. Among the statements a-d pertaining to authority and credibility choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Authority/credibility may be the most important in the ethos (characteristics of messenger) cluster of persuasion principles.

b. This principle can be used in an ethical manner by finding ways to inform the audience in advance of the presenter’s credibility and expertise.

c. People very rarely obey authority figures if they are asked to perform objectionable acts.

d. To establish your authority to speak about your topic it can be useful to begin by stating the source of your knowledge: experience, training, or research.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.12. Among the statements a-d pertaining to liking choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. We are more likely to be influenced by people we know and like.

b. We tend to like people who are positive, respectful, appreciative and empathetic.

c. Assertiveness and likeability and are one in the same dimension.

d. We tend to like people who are similar to us, people who pay us compliments, and
people who cooperate with us.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.13. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the empathy and listening choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Empathy is the experience of understanding another person’s condition from their perspective.

b. Body language (e.g., eye contact, empathetic noises, nods) is irrelevant to good listening.

c. Paraphrasing your understanding of a speaker’s words is important in listening.

d. Asking questions for clarification (with a genuine attempt to learn) is important in listening.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.14. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the term personalizing choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The use of personal material in presentations can be powerful but can easily be overdone.

b. The audience will care about the personal experience of the presenter to the extent it can serve as an example to them, a metaphor for their challenge and proof that they can succeed.

c. Presenters should avoid talking about themselves when it doesn’t help the audience understand their own journey or increase their belief in their own capacity to succeed.

d. Using your personal story to create an example can bring your point to life when the stories can create an experience of the information being presented.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.15. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the term reciprocity choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. People are more likely to say yes to those who they owe.

b. We are more likely to persuade someone if we have given them something – when we make a concession.

c. There are substantive and stylistic concessions and one of the easiest concessions to make is respectful listening.

d. An effective way to reciprocate in listening is to use language that is equivocal and doubtful.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.16. Among the statements a-d pertaining to humour choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. It is easy to use humour effectively in presentations.

b. Humour can invoke the reciprocity principle.

c. Humour can invoke the liking principle.

d. Humour which is self-deprecating or self-parody can be effective because of the link to reciprocation, concession, and vulnerability.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.17. Among the statements a-d pertaining to knowing the audience choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. It is easy to exaggerate the importance of an audience’s general age, gender, education level, religion, language, culture, and group membership in preparing to present.

b. There are a number of psychological phenomena – such as the power of predispositions, cognitive conservatism, and confirmatory bias –  that cause people to underestimate the importance of learning about the audience.

c. Knowing the audience may be the most important of the pathos persuasion principles.

d. We typically know our audiences in a half-baked way. We need to use all available resources to know the audience.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.18. Among the statements a-d pertaining to knowing the context choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Without context, your audience may not understand your message and you might not understand your audience.

b. Situational context refers to the reason why you’re speaking.

c. Environmental context refers to the physical space and time in which you speak.

d. Understanding the context has arguably become more important as technology and social media have change the way people consume information and communicate.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.19. Among the statements a-d pertaining to types of attitude change choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The goal of persuasion should always be to convert the listener to your view.

b. One must ask what degree of attitude change is most appropriate for the particular persuasion situation, and should have a strategic objective clearly in mind.

c. Conversion is changing on opposing view to your view.

d. De-activation is changing an opposing view to not sure.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.20. Among the statements a-d pertaining to conformity, similarity and social proof choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Social norms have little power in persuading people to change their views.

b. People are often persuaded to change their attitudes or behaviour in response to real or imagined group pressure.

c. Especially when they are uncertain, people will look to the actions and views of others to determine their own.

d. Conformity is a time-saving device that increases the chances of being correct, yields social approval, or avoids disapproval.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.21. Among the statements a-d pertaining to consistency and commitment choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. If people commit, orally or in writing, to an idea or goal, they are more likely to honor that commitment because of establishing that idea or goal as being congruent with their self-image.

b. People feel personal and interpersonal pressures to honour and to behave consistently with their prior commitments.

c. Small initial commitments can be leveraged into much larger commitments.

d. Commitments are most powerful when they are active, public, effortful and felt to be an inner responsibility.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.04.22. Among the statements a-d pertaining to active audience choose the one that is most valid or choose e if all are invalid.

a. Encouraging an active as opposed to passive audience is one of the pathos (characteristics of audience) persuasion principles.

b. One way of encouraging an active audience is telling the audience that you want it to be active, such as putting up a slide that says, “Please, interrupt me! (Really!)”

c. One way of encouraging an active audience is to record their wish list by clarifying in the first few minutes of the presentation what’s most important to the audience.

d. One way of encouraging an active audience is to focus on benefits to the audience by asking them to confirm the benefits that are important to them.

e. All of a-d are invalid.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified on 14 September 2017.

Image: Image from this page, accessed 23 January 2016.