Indigenous Peoples

… a core topic in Socioeconomic and Political Context and Atlas105

IndigenousPeoplesTopic description

This topic explores some of the policy issues associated with Indigenous peoples in Canada. It is a complex, contested topic that is shaped by its historical, legal, geographical, political, and socio-economic contexts.

Each of these contexts has a substantial body of literature; the modest aim of this page is to provide public management students with a sense of the importance of the context for Indigenous governance and policy, and to offer links to additional online resources.

One result of the dynamism and sensitivity of the context for Indigenous policy in Canada is the fluidity of terminology. See, for example, Indigenous Peoples – A Guide to Terminology and the recent briefing note for Canadian Parliamentarians:

Tonina Simeone (2015), Indigenous Peoples: Terminology and Identity, Hill Notes 14 December 2015, Library of Parliament, https://hillnotes.wordpress.com/2015/12/14/indigenous-peoples-terminology-and-identity/, accessed 3 October 2016.

Topic learning outcome

Students will have acquired a rudimentary familiarity with the historical, legal, geographical, political, and socio-economic contexts for Indigenous policy in Canada and will be familiar with the contours of the policy debates about these matters.

Core concepts associated with this topic
Aboriginal Peoples

Non-Status Indians

Indigenous Peoples – A Guide to Terminology

Indigenization

Indigenous Rights

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP)

Royal Commission on Aboriginal PeoplesTruth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada

Recommended readings for 8 hours of preparation

Each of the concept pages above

INAC (2012), Terminology, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100014642/1100100014643, accessed 30 September 2016.

INAC (2013), First Nations in Canada, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1307460755710/1307460872523, accessed 30 September 2016.

INAC (2015), First Nations Profiles, at http://fnp-ppn.aandc-aadnc.gc.ca/fnp/Main/index.aspx?lang=eng, accessed 30 September 2016.

INAC (2016), Map Room, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1290453474688/1290453673970, accessed 30 September 2016.

Max Fabian Meis and Ferdinand Carrière (2014), We Will Be Free, Downsideup Film Productions, 60-minute film at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OXT2JXe8mnA, 3-minute official trailer at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1_kuDU04_DA, accessed 2 October 2016.

William Henderson, Catherine Bell, and Gretchen Albers (2016), Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-rights/, accessed 1 October 2016.

United Nations, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, at http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf, accessed 7 April 2016.

Mackenzie Scrimshaw (2016), Unpacking UNDRIP: How Trudeau could take Crown/First Nations law into uncharted waters, iPolitics, 12 January 2016, at http://ipolitics.ca/2016/01/12/unpacking-undrip-how-trudeau-could-take-crownfirst-nations-law-into-uncharted-waters/, accessed 7 April 2016.

Harry Swain (2016). Should we implement UNDRIP, Walter Gordon Symposium, 23 March 2016, http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Harry-Swain-2016-Should-We-Implement-UNDRIP-Walter-Gordon-Symposium-1.pdf, accessed 7 April 2016.

Caleb Holden (2016), Why a New Royal Proclamation Needs a New Treaty of Niagara, Public Policy and Governance Review, 11 March 2016, at https://ppgreview.ca/2016/03/11/why-a-new-royal-proclamation-needs-a-new-treaty-of-niagara/, accessed 2 October 2016.

Sophie Borwein, Alexa Greig, Benjamin Hanff, and Maripier Isabelle (2016), What Indigenous reconciliation means for millennials, Toronto Star, 21 March, at http://www.thestar.com/opinion/commentary/2016/03/21/what-indigenous-reconciliation-means-for-millennials.html, accessed 3 April 2016.

Government of Canada, Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969, at https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ/STAGING/texte-text/cp1969_1100100010190_eng.pdf, accessed 2 October 2016.

Audrey Doerr (2015), Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/royal-commission-on-aboriginal-peoples/, accessed 2 October 2016.

Jeffrey Simpson (2016), An inquiry that seems to have no start, and no end, Globe and Mail, 19 February 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/globe-politics-insider/jeffrey-simpson-an-inquiry-that-seems-to-have-no-start-and-no-end/article28805564/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Jeffrey Simpson (2016), It takes more than money to close an education gap, Globe and Mail, 12 February 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/globe-politics-insider/jeffrey-simpson-it-takes-more-than-money-to-close-an-education-gap/article28733124/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Jeffrey Simpson (2013), Too many first nations people live in a dream palace, Globe and Mail, 5 January 2013, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/too-many-first-nations-people-live-in-a-dream-palace/article6929035/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Frances Widdowson (2013), A ‘dream palace’ built on gas and gold won’t solve aboriginal poverty, Globe and Mail, 10 January 2013, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/a-dream-palace-built-on-gas-and-gold-wont-solve-aboriginal-poverty/article7158684/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Moira Macdonald (2016), Indigenizing the academy, University Affairs, 6 April 2016, at http://www.universityaffairs.ca/features/feature-article/indigenizing-the-academy/, accessed 8 April 2016.

Supplementary resources

Socioeconomic profile

Siggner, Andrew J, and Evelyn J. Peters. 2014. “The Non-Status Indian Population Living Off-Reserve in Canada: A Demographic and Socio-Economic Profile.” Aboriginal Policy Studies 3(3): 86-108. At http://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/aps/article/view/18582/pdf_25, accessed 3 April 2016.

Legal framework

Indian Act (current to March 16, 2016) at http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/PDF/I-5.pdf, accessed 4 April 2016.

Historical List of Indian Acts and Amendments, at http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/205/301/ic/cdc/aboriginaldocs/m-stat.htm, accessed 4 April 2016.

History and reconciliation

Adryan Bergstrom-Borins (2016), My Reconciliation Includes Decolonizing Canada, Public Policy and Governance Review, 10 March, at http://ppgreview.ca/2016/03/10/myreconciliationincludes-decolonizing-canada/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Robin Sears (2015). Murray Sinclair – The Path to Reconciliation, at http://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca/murray-sinclair-policy-maker-of-the-year-the-path-to-reconciliation/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Resource management

Dwight Newman (2015). Is the Sky the Limit? MacDonald-Laurier Institute, at http://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca/files/pdf/MLIAboriginalResourcesNo7-06-15-WebReady-V3.pdf, accessed 3 April 2016.

Ken Coates (2015). Sharing the Wealth, MacDonald-Laurier Institute, at http://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca/files/pdf/MLIresourcerevenuesharingweb.pdf, accessed 3 April 2016.

Institutions

Ken Coates (2008). The Indian Act and the Future of Aboriginal Governance in Canada. Research Paper for the National Centre for First Nations Governance. http://fngovernance.org/ncfng_research/coates.pdf, accessed 1 April 2016.

Ken Coates and Greg Poelzer (2014). An Unfinished Nation: completing the devolution revolution in Canada’s North. Ottawa: Macdonald-Laurier Institute. http://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca/files/pdf/ArcticDevolution-final.pdf, accessed 1 April 2016

UNDRIP – United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

Ken Coates (2013), From aspiration to inspiration – UNDRIP finding deep traction in Indigenous communities, at https://www.cigionline.org/blogs/aspiration-inspiration-undrip-finding-deep-traction-indigenous-communities, accessed 3 April 2016.

Ken Coates and Terry Mitchell (2013). UNDRIP Changes Indigenous Peoples Articulation of Both Problems and Solutions, at https://www.cigionline.org/blogs/rise-of-fourth-world/undrip-changes-indigenous-peoples-articulation, accessed 3 April 2016.Historical context

The history of Indigenous governance in the land that is now Canada is, to put it mildly, contentious. Harry Swain (reference below) writes:

“We are halfway into a thousand-year collision between Europeans, mostly, and the indigenous peoples of Canada: in other words, probably at the point of maximum confusion. Old colonial certainties have collapsed and a hundred old and new ideas are contending.” Source: Harry Swain (2016), Paths to reconciliation in the post-Tsilhqot’in world, Privy Council Office seminar on aboriginal law and policy, Ottawa, 4 April 2016, uploaded to the Atlas by permission of the author at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Harry-Swain-2016-Paths-to-reconciliation.pdf.

Very readable summaries of elements of this history can be found at the Canadian Encyclopedia and at the Indigenous and Northern Affairs (INAC) website, including:

Canadian Encyclopedia (2015), Indigenous Peoples, with links to dozens of other articles in the encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-people/, accessed 3 October 2016.

Tonio Sadik, Noel Dyck, and Gretchen Albers (2016), Indigenous People: Political Organization and Activism, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-people-political-organization-and-activism/, accessed 3 October 2016.

William Henderson and Gretchen Albers (2015), Self-Government – Indigenous Peoples, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-self-government/, accessed 1 October 2016.

INAC (2013), First Nations in Canada, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1307460755710/1307460872523, accessed 30 September 2016.

Contrasting perspectives from prominent Indigenous scholars include:

Taiaiake Alfred (2016), Reconciliation as Recolonization, Public Lecture at Concordia University, 20 September 2016, YouTube video, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LEiNu7UL7TM, accessed 3 October 2016.

Cindy Blackstock (2016), Bringing Justice to Indigenous Communities, Presentation at the Progress Summit, Broadbent Institute, 2 April 2016, YouTube video, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TKV3_6fQJkI, accessed 6 October 2016.

CBC, Mansbridge One on One (2016), Cindy Blackstock, 14 February 2016, YouTube video, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahGQ0WBd0ng, accessed 6 October 2016.

John Borrows (2015), Governance – Canada’s Indian Act, Lecture 2 in Law 340, University of Victoria, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3lgrZCBIwwA&list=PLtpQnJMAvMoRWtgFq1kj22tHeNOh5U2I4, accessed 9 October 2016. Note: Lectures 2-24 in this course are available at https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3GVqsk_81azYxiGda4j6iQ/videos?shelf_id=0&view=0&sort=dd.

John Borrows (2015), Aboriginal Title and Private Property, The Supreme Court Law Review – Osgoode’s Annual Constitutional Cases Conference, Volume 71, Article 5, at http://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1307&context=sclr, accessed 9 October 2016.

Pam Palmater (2015), Taking Back Kanada, presentation at the Institute for the Humanities, 24 September 2015, You Tube video, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lWluP-3qOA, accessed 3 October 2016.

Hayden King (2015), Picturing the Americas, Art Gallery of Ontario, YouTube Video, Parts 1 and 2, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=srP7DHWwYYI, and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6EpFq_ziVWc, accessed 3 October 2016.

Douglas Sanderson (2013), Toward an Aboriginal Grand Strategy, Global Brief, 17 June 2013, at http://globalbrief.ca/blog/2013/06/17/toward-an-aboriginal-grand-strategy/, and YouTube video, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nSzl4pnD08E, accessed 3 October 2016.

Legal context

Given the importance of rights and treaties in this history it is not surprising that legal processes and Court decisions play a central role in the evolution of Indigenous governance in Canada. Atlas entries include:

Calder Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1973

Sparrow Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1990

Delgamuukw Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1997

Tsilhqot’in Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 2014

Open access articles that provide further detail on the legal context include:

William Henderson (2014), Law of Indigenous People, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-people-law/, accessed 3 October 2016.

Catherine Bell, William Henderson, and Gretchen Albers, Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-rights/, accessed 3 October 2016.

Mary Hurley (2009), Settling Comprehensive Land Claims, Library of Parliament Research Publications, 21 September 2009, at http://www.lop.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0916-e.htm, accessed 3 October 2016.

Geographical context

The geographical context for indigenous governance is important for two reasons. First, land has a special place in Indigenous cultures (in his 2016 lecture referenced above, Taiaiake Alfred reiterates, “It’s all about the land”) and, second, the geographical characteristics of Indigenous communities affect the economic and social opportunities of their members.

Click for Map Room

Click for Map Room

The online resources at the INAC Map Room (link on right) and INAC First Nations Profiles help depict this geographical context:

INAC (2016), Map Room, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1290453474688/1290453673970, accessed 30 September 2016.

INAC (2015), First Nations Profiles, at http://fnp-ppn.aandc-aadnc.gc.ca/fnp/Main/index.aspx?lang=eng, accessed 30 September 2016.

The limited economic prospects associated with small, isolated communities, has been remarked upon by some commentators, for example:

Jonathan Kay (2016), Moving is the only hope for communities like Attawapiskat, National Post, 16 April 2016, at http://news.nationalpost.com/full-comment/jonathan-kay-little-hope-for-attawapiskat-as-long-as-its-people-stay-put, accessed 3 October 2016.

Jeffrey Simpson (2016), It takes more than money to close an education gap, Globe and Mail, 12 February 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/globe-politics-insider/jeffrey-simpson-it-takes-more-than-money-to-close-an-education-gap/article28733124/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Jeffrey Simpson (2013), Too many first nations people live in a dream palace, Globe and Mail, 5 January 2013, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/too-many-first-nations-people-live-in-a-dream-palace/article6929035/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Rodney Clifton (2015), Some Other Truths About Indian Residential Schools, C2C Journal, 19 May 2015, at http://www.c2cjournal.ca/2015/05/some-other-truths-about-indian-residential-schools/, accessed 29 March 2017.

Rodney Clifton (2009), Truth, Reconciliation, and Aboriginal Residential Schools: A Reply to Michael Ignatieff, C2C Journal, 19 June 2009, at http://www.c2cjournal.ca/2009/06/truth-reconciliation-and-aboriginal-residential-schools-a-reply-to-michael-ignatieff/, accessed 29 March 2017.

Socio-economic context

Indigenous Canadians have lower scores on most socioeconomic indicators than non-Indigenous Canadians. Results from the 2011 National Household Survey can be found at:

Statistics Canada, Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: First Nations People, Métis and Inuit, at http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-011-x/99-011-x2011001-eng.cfm, accessed 30 September 2016.

Graphic depictions of Indigenous urban poverty can be seen in the 2014 documentary by two German film makers:

Max Fabian Meis and Ferdinand Carrière (2014), We Will Be Free, Downsideup Film Productions, 60-minute film at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OXT2JXe8mnA, 3-minute official trailer at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1_kuDU04_DA, accessed 2 October 2016.

Political context

Governance is inextricably linked to politics and Indigenous governance is affected by political developments within and between Indigenous communities and by political developments in the country as a whole.

Politics play a large part in decisions to undertake major policy reviews, such as:

White Paper – Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada

During the last Canadian federal election the victorious party committed to be more respectful of the governance aspirations of Canada’s Indigenous peoples. Promises included:

Several commentators have opined on the extent to which these promises are feasible and the extent to which they would affect realities on the ground, including:

Harry Swain (2016). Should we implement UNDRIP, Walter Gordon Symposium, 23 March 2016, http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Harry-Swain-2016-Should-We-Implement-UNDRIP-Walter-Gordon-Symposium-1.pdf, accessed 7 April 2016.

Jeffrey Simpson (2016), What exactly is a ‘nation-to-nation’ relationship? Globe and Mail, 25 March 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/globe-politics-insider/jeffrey-simpson-what-exactly-is-a-nation-to-nation-relationship/article29379888/, accessed 2 October 2016.

James Munson (2016), Nation-to-nation relationship taking shape, iPolitics, 4 June 2016, at https://ipolitics.ca/2016/06/04/nation-to-nation-relationship-is-starting-to-take-shape-says-inac/, accessed 2 October 2016.

Governmental (INAC) context

Key links from the Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada website include:

First Nation Profiles Interactive Map at http://fnpim-cippn.aandc-aadnc.gc.ca/index-eng.html, accessed 5 December 2016.

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, 2016-17 Report on Plans and Priorities, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1453826795178/1453826845637, accessed 5 December 2016.

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, 2015-16 Departmental Performance Report, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1466532403785/1466532431821, accessed 5 December 2016.

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, Audit and Evaluation Reports (2007-08 to 2015-16) at https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100011247/1100100011248, accessed 5 December 2016.

Recommended readings in MPP and MPA courses

Toronto PPG1000 Governance and Institutions (Fall 2015)

Siggner, Andrew J, and Evelyn J. Peters. 2014. “The Non-Status Indian Population Living Off-Reserve in Canada: A Demographic and Socio-Economic Profile.” Aboriginal Policy Studies 3(3): 86-108.

Saskatchewan-Regina JSGS863 Aboriginal Peoples and Public Policy (Fall 2013)

Poelzer, Greg and Ken Coates. 2015. From Treaty Peoples to Treaty Nation: A Road Map for All Canadians, University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. Table of Contents and Preface available at: http://www.ubcpress.ca/books/pdf/chapters/2015/FromTreatyPeoplesToTreatyNation.pdf, accessed 28 March 2016.

See also the extensive Supplementary Reading List at bottom of Saskatchewan-Regina JSGS863 Aboriginal Peoples and Public Policy.

Queen’s MPA 879 Comparative Indigenous Governance (Spring 2008)

Borrows. 2004. Recovering Canada, The Resurgence of Indigenous Law. Page 13 to 28 and page 47 to 55.

Bunnell, Friesen and Hyung. 2006. “Indigination: the politics of being/becoming indigenous in Malaysia, New Zealand, and Canada.”

Concept comprehension questions

AQ105.06.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to Aboriginal peoples choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Aboriginal peoples is a collective name for the original peoples of North America and their descendants.

b. The Canadian constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal peoples: Indians (commonly referred to as First Nations), Métis and Inuit.

c. Non-Status Indians are not technically part of the collectivity known as Aboriginal people.

d. Data from Canada’s National Household Survey (NHS) show that 1,400,685 people had an Aboriginal identity in 2011, representing 4.3% of the total Canadian population.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ105.06.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to Non-Status Indians choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Non-status Indians are individuals who identify themselves, culturally, as First Nations people (or North American Indians, which is the term used in the census) rather than as Métis or Inuit, but they are not registered under the Indian Act.

b. Approximately one-quarter of First Nations people are not Registered Indians.

c. The category of Non-Status Indian emerged from regulations for determining who was “Indian” and, by definition, who had lost that status, starting with the 1869 amendments to the Indian Act that stated that First Nations women who married non-First Nations men would lose their status.

d. In 1985 Bill C-31 amended the Indian Act to allow individuals who had lost legal Indian status as a result of the 1869 amendment (regarding marriage to a non-Indian man) to regain their Indian status.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ105.06.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to Indigenization choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Indigenization is the process of changing institutions and processes (particularly in the educational realm) to take greater account of the history, culture, and circumstances of Indigenous peoples.

b. Universities Canada has released a set of Principles on Indigenous Education which include recognizing the importance of providing greater exposure and knowledge for non-Indigenous students on the realities, histories, cultures and beliefs of Indigenous people in Canada.

c. All universities that are members of Universities Canada have committed to requiring at least one course on Indigenous studies for all undergraduates entering in fall 2017 and later.

d. Examples of Indigenization of a non-curricular nature that have already been adopted in some Canadian universities include buildings inspired by indigenous cultures, campus gardens with traditional plants, making powwows are a key part of ceremonial and cultural life, and street signs on campus roads in both English and an Indigenous language.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ105.06.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to Indigenous rights choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Indigenous rights in Canada are inherent, collective rights that flow from pre-contact social orders and the original occupation of the land that is now Canada.

b. In Canada, Indigenous rights apply to First Nations and Inuit, but not to Métis, where the basis of rights is constitutionally distinct.

c. Indigenous rights are also known as Aboriginal rights or inherent rights and they include Aboriginal title to traditional lands.

d. No Indigenous right, even though constitutionally protected, is absolute in Canadian law.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ105.06.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. UNDRIP has a preamble and 46 articles laying out a series of collective and individual human rights that the United Nations has decided should be the minimum enjoyed by Indigenous peoples the world over.

b. UNDRIP includes a definition of Indigenous peoples that was the product of many years of deliberation and debate.

c. UNDRIP includes a provision for retroactive compensation for things done in violation of Indigenous laws, traditions and customs.

d. UNDRIP requires that free and informed consent of Indigenous peoples be obtained prior to approval of any project affecting their lands or territories and other resources.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ105.06.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples was established following the Oka Crisis in the summer of 1990 as part of a package of federal government initiatives in response to concerns arising from the crisis.

b. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples established a large and complex research agenda with four theme areas (governance; land and economy; social and cultural issues; and the North) each of which was to addressed from four perspectives (historical, women, youth and urban).

c. The main conclusion of the report was the need for a complete restructuring of the relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada.

d. Recognizing that there was little appetite among Canadians and their governments to undertake another round of constitutional negotiation, the Commission was careful to draft its recommendations in a way that could be implemented without constitutional change.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ105.06.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The TRC was created to provide those directly or indirectly affected by the legacy of the Indian Residential Schools system with an opportunity to share their stories and experiences.

b. The TRC created a historical record of the residential schools system.

c. The TRC developed 94 calls to action under the headings of child welfare, education, language and culture, health, justice, United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Royal Proclamation and Covenant of Reconciliation, equity for Aboriginal people in the legal system, National Council for Reconciliation, professional development and training for public servants, church apologies and reconciliation, education for reconciliation, youth programs, museums and archives, missing children and burial information, National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, commemoration, media and reconciliation, sports and reconciliation, business and reconciliation, and newcomers to Canada.

d. The Government of Canada (as of February 2017) has yet to commit to addressing the calls to action.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified on 29 March 2017.

Image: 22NewsWWLP.com, at http://wwlp.com/2015/10/14/columbus-day-renamed-as-indigenous-peoples-day-in-bridgeport-ct/, accessed 7 April 2016.