Indigenous Governance

… a core topic in Governance and Institutions and Atlas100

tribalnationsmapTopic description

This topic explores the legal rights and institutions that have developed for and been developed by indigenous peoples, focussing on Canada.

In the Canadian context, this topic includes Aboriginal self-government, the evolution of the relationship between Aboriginal Peoples and the institutions of Canadian federalism, and the remaining obstacles to recognizing indigenous governing institutions. Indigenous groups’ unique history with particular regions and their interactions with non-indigenous peoples have given rise to these rights and institutions. This topic explores the differing views, held by indigenous peoples and the states in which they reside, on the types of rights held and how they play out in specific scenarios. It examines legal decisions made by courts that have shaped the nature and power of indigenous rights and institutions. Canada, among other countries, is an important country of focus for this topic. The concepts listed below pertain to the Canadian context but are relevant in other countries as well.

Topic learning outcome

Upon completing this topic the student will understand the historical evolution of the unique governance institutions that have been developed by and for indigenous peoples in Canada. They will be aware of the key historical and ongoing disputes about the legal rights of Aboriginal Canadians as individuals and members of specific communities, and will be familiar with key court cases that have shaped indigenous rights and institutions.

Core concepts associated with this topic
White Paper – Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969

Calder Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1973

Sparrow Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1990

Delgamuukw Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1997

Tsilhqot’in Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 2014

Aboriginal Title

Land Claims

Treaty Rights

Nation-to-Nation Relationship

Inherent Right to Self-Government

Self-Government

Abele and Prince’s Four Models of Aboriginal Self-Government

Governance vs. Self-Government

Papillon’s Mosaic of Aboriginal Governance

INAC’s Resources to Support Governance

Additional Atlas material associated with this topic

Indigenous Peoples

Recommended readings for 8 hours of preparation

Each of the concept pages above

William Henderson and Gretchen Albers (2015), Self-Government – Indigenous Peoples, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-self-government/, accessed 1 October 2016.

Max Fabian Meis and Ferdinand Carrière (2014), We Will Be Free, Downsideup Film Productions, 60-minute film at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OXT2JXe8mnA, 3-minute official trailer at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1_kuDU04_DA, accessed 2 October 2016.

William Henderson, Catherine Bell, and Gretchen Albers (2016), Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-rights/, accessed 1 October 2016.

Anthony Hall and Gretchen Albers (2015), Aboriginal Treaties, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-treaties/, accessed 2 October 2016.

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (2016), General Briefing Note on Canada’s Self-government and Comprehensive Land Claims Policies and the Status of Negotiations, at https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1373385502190/1373385561540#s1-2, accessed 2 October 2016.

Jeffrey Simpson (2016), What exactly is a ‘nation-to-nation’ relationship? Globe and Mail, 25 March 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/globe-politics-insider/jeffrey-simpson-what-exactly-is-a-nation-to-nation-relationship/article29379888/, accessed 2 October 2016.

James Munson (2016), Nation-to-nation relationship taking shape, iPolitics, 4 June 2016, at https://ipolitics.ca/2016/06/04/nation-to-nation-relationship-is-starting-to-take-shape-says-inac/, accessed 2 October 2016.

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, Governance, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100013803/1100100013807#, accessed 1 October 2016.

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, Indian Government Support Programs at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100013809/1100100013810#Tools,  accessed 1 October 2016.

Aboriginal and Treaty Rights Information System (ATRIS), a web-based, geographic information system that locates Aboriginal communities and displays information relating to their potential or established Aboriginal or treaty rights, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100014686/1100100014687, accessed 2 October 2016.

Sophie Borwein, Alexa Greig, Benjamin Hanff, and Maripier Isabelle (2016), What Indigenous reconciliation means for millennials, Toronto Star, 21 March, at http://www.thestar.com/opinion/commentary/2016/03/21/what-indigenous-reconciliation-means-for-millennials.html, accessed 3 April 2016.

Harry Swain and James Baillie (2015), Commentaries: Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia: Aboriginal Title and Section 35, to appear in Canadian Business Law Journal, University of Victoria, Centre for Global Studies, at https://www.uvic.ca/research/centres/globalstudies/publications/publicationsdb/pubs/tsilhqotin-nation-v-british-columbia.php, accessed 2 October 2016 and uploaded to the Atlas at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Swain-and-Baillie-Tsilhqotin-case-review-2015.pdf. See also Harry Swain and James Baillie (2015), Quagmire in our native land – Parliament must act to mitigate the disastrous consequence of judge-made law, Financial Post, 4 February 2015, at http://business.financialpost.com/fp-comment/quagmire-in-our-native-land, accessed 2 October 2016.

Harry Swain (2016), Paths to reconciliation in the post-Tsilhqot’in world, Privy Council Office seminar on aboriginal law and policy, Ottawa, 4 April 2016, uploaded to the Atlas by permission of the author at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Harry-Swain-2016-Paths-to-reconciliation.pdf.

Jeffrey Simpson (2016), What exactly is a ‘nation-to-nation’ relationship? Globe and Mail, 25 March 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/globe-politics-insider/jeffrey-simpson-what-exactly-is-a-nation-to-nation-relationship/article29379888/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Recommended readings in MPP and MPA courses

Toronto PPG1000 Governance and Institutions (Fall 2015)

Papillon, Martin. 2012. “Canadian Federalism and the Emerging Mosaic of Aboriginal Multi-Level Governance,” in Canadian Federalism: Performance, Effectiveness and Legitimacy, 3rd ed., eds. Herman Bakvis and Grace Skogstad, pp. 284-301. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Papillon, Martin. 2014. “The Rise and Fall of Aboriginal Self-Government,” in Canadian Politics, 6th ed., eds. James Bickerton and Alain-G. Gagnon, pp. 113-131. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Abele, Frances, and Michael J. Prince. 2006. “Four Pathways to Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada.” American Review of Canadian Studies 36(4): 568-595.

Saskatchewan-Regina JSGS863 Aboriginal Peoples and Public Policy (Fall 2013)

Indian Act, 1876 (http://www.canadiana.org/view/9_02041/0056) and Amendments (http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/205/301/ic/cdc/aboriginaldocs/m-stat.htm).

See also the extensive Supplementary Reading List at bottom of Saskatchewan-Regina JSGS863 Aboriginal Peoples and Public Policy.

Queen’s MPA 879 Comparative Indigenous Governance (Spring 2008)

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. 2006. “Principles of a Renewed Relationship” and “Restructuring the Relationships.” In The Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Highlights of the report available at http://www.aincinac.gc.ca/ch/rcap/rpt/nte_e.html

Alfred, T. 2000. “Deconstructing the British Columbia Treaty Process.”

Review of the B.C. Treaty Process. Institute on Governance. 1998. “Aboriginal Governance in Urban Settings.”

Barsh, R. 1993. “Aboriginal Governance in the United States: A Qualitative Political Analysis.”

Democracy Center. 2007. “Interpreting Bolivia’s Political Transformation.”

Concept comprehension questions

AQ100.10.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to Aboriginal peoples choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Aboriginal peoples is a collective name for the original peoples of North America and their descendants.

b. The Canadian constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal peoples: Indians (commonly referred to as First Nations), Métis and Inuit.

c. Non-Status Indians are not technically part of the collectivity known as Aboriginal people.

d. Data from Canada’s National Household Survey (NHS) show that 1,400,685 people had an Aboriginal identity in 2011, representing 4.3% of the total Canadian population.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to Non-Status Indians choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Non-status Indians are individuals who identify themselves, culturally, as First Nations people (or North American Indians, which is the term used in the census) rather than as Métis or Inuit, but they are not registered under the Indian Act.

b. Approximately one-quarter of First Nations people are not Registered Indians.

c. The category of Non-Status Indian emerged from regulations for determining who was “Indian” and, by definition, who had lost that status, starting with the 1869 amendments to the Indian Act that stated that First Nations women who married non-First Nations men would lose their status.

d. In 1985 Bill C-31 amended the Indian Act to allow individuals who had lost legal Indian status as a result of the 1869 amendment (regarding marriage to a non-Indian man) to regain their Indian status.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969 (White Paper) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The 1969 White Paper stated that the goals of Canada’s Indian people cannot be set by others and must spring from the Indian community itself but that government could create a framework within which all persons and groups can seek their own goals.

b. The 1969 White Paper was a policy failure and was withdrawn because, at the end of the day, the government could neither commit to removing the legislative and constitutional bases of discrimination, nor commit to transfer control of Indian lands to Indian people.

c. The 1969 White Paper was a policy failure and was withdrawn because many felt the document overlooked concerns raised during consultations and appeared to be a final attempt to assimilate Indigenous peoples into the Canadian population.

d. The 1969 White Paper was a policy failure and was withdrawn because many Indigenous leaders felt that instead of dealing with First Nations fairly and appropriately, the federal government was absolving itself of historical promises and responsibilities. Instead, provinces – with whom First Nations had no relationship – would be forced to deal with longstanding issues.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Calder Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1973 choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Calder decision deals with the question of whether Aboriginal title could exist in common law.

b. The Calder case reviewed the existence of Aboriginal title claimed over lands historically occupied by the Nisga’a Aboriginal peoples of northwestern BC.

c. In the Calder case, the Supreme Court of Canada by a majority recognized that aboriginal title could exist in common law.

d. The Calder decision was a major factor leading to federal willingness to negotiate Aboriginal land claims.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to Indigenous rights choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Indigenous rights in Canada are inherent, collective rights that flow from pre-contact social orders and the original occupation of the land that is now Canada.

b. In Canada, Indigenous rights apply to First Nations and Inuit, but not to Métis, where the basis of rights is constitutionally distinct.

c. Indigenous rights are also known as Aboriginal rights or inherent rights and they include Aboriginal title to traditional lands.

d. No Indigenous right, even though constitutionally protected, is absolute in Canadian law.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. UNDRIP has a preamble and 46 articles laying out a series of collective and individual human rights that the United Nations has decided should be the minimum enjoyed by Indigenous peoples the world over.

b. UNDRIP includes a definition of Indigenous peoples that was the product of many years of deliberation and debate.

c. UNDRIP includes a provision for retroactive compensation for things done in violation of Indigenous laws, traditions and customs.

d. UNDRIP requires that free and informed consent of Indigenous peoples be obtained prior to approval of any project affecting their lands or territories and other resources.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Sparrow Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1990 choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Sparrow decision deals with the content and the extent of Aboriginal rights, based on a case involving fishing rights.

b. In the Sparrow case an Indigenous person fished contrary to the provisions of federal law and in his defence he alleged that the right to fish was an immemorial right protected by treaty by virtue of section 35 of the Constitution Act.

c. In the Sparrow decision the Supreme Court upheld Indigenous rights, finding that if they existed on 17 April 1982 then they were affirmed and could not be limited.

d. In the Sparrow decision the Supreme Court stated that section 35 of the Constitution Act must be interpreted liberally to ensure that any law or regulation that infringes on an existing right have a valid purpose and detract as little as possible from an existing right.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to Aboriginal title choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Aboriginal title as a legal term that recognizes an Aboriginal interest in the land.

b. Aboriginal title is a communal right; an individual cannot hold Aboriginal title.

c. Aboriginal title to land confers less absolute property rights than fee simple ownership with respect to exclusive use and occupation of the land.

d. Aboriginal title is also referred to as Indigenous title, Native title (particularly in Australia), original Indian title (particularly in the United States), and customary title (particularly in New Zealand).

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Delgamuukw Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1997 choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Delgamuukw decision deals with the definition, the content, and the extent, of Aboriginal title.

b. In the Delgamuukw case the Supreme Court held that Aboriginal title constituted an ancestral right protected by Section 35(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982.

c. In the Delgamuukw case the Supreme Court held that Aboriginal title is a right relating to land sui generis, held communally and distinct from other ancestral rights.

d. In the Delgamuukw case the Supreme Court held that Aboriginal title, being sui generis, does not encompass exclusive use and occupation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Tsilhqot’in Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 2014 choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Tsilhqot’in decision deals with the definition, the content, and the extent, of Aboriginal title.

b. The Tsilhqot’in decision is seen by most business associations as providing greater clarity in the obligations of resource developers and thus improve Canada’s overall business climate.

c. In the Tsilhqot’in case the Supreme Court of Canada ruled unanimously in favour of Chief Roger William, acting on his own behalf and on the behalf of all members of the Tsilhqot’in Nation, granting Aboriginal title to 1700 km2 of land traditionally inhabited by the Tsilhqot’in.

d. The Tsilhqot’in decision clarified the requirements for establishing Aboriginal title: an Aboriginal group must first prove occupation, and then must prove continuity and exclusivity of said occupation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to land claims choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Government of Canada policy for the settlement of Aboriginal land claims policy divides claims into two broad categories: specific and comprehensive.

b. Specific claims, made by First Nations against Canada, relate to the administration of land and other assets, or to the non-fulfilment of historic treaties.

c. Comprehensive land claims are based on the assertion of continuing Aboriginal rights and/or title to lands and natural resources.

d. After many years of research and conciliation, there are no longer any substantial areas in Canada where land is claimed by more than one First Nation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to treaty rights choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Treaty rights are Indigenous rights set out in a treaty.

b. Indigenous treaties in Canada are constitutionally recognized agreements between the Crown and Indigenous peoples.

c. In all Canadian provinces except for Newfoundland the majority of the land is covered by Indigenous treaties.

d. While no two treaties are identical, examples of treaty rights across Canada included such things as reserve lands, farming equipment and animals, annual payments, ammunition, clothing and certain rights to hunt and fish.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to nation-to-nation relationship choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Nation-to-nation relationship has been used to describe a way in which Indigenous entities could interact with governments in Canada but the exact meaning is still unclear.

b. The 2015 Speech from the Throne promised that “the Government will undertake to renew, nation-to-nation, the relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples, one based on recognition of rights, respect, co-operation and partnership.”

c. The commitment to a nation to nation relationship applies to First Nations and to Inuit communities, but not to the Métis Nation where a different framework is proposed.

d. In his 6 December 2016 address to the Assembly of First Nations, Prime Minister Trudeau made two references to nation-to-nation: “I do not take my call for a nation-to-nation relationship with Indigenous Peoples lightly” and “It is of the greatest imperative that all of us here never allow Canadians the chance to fear that due to a lack of joint leadership, of a true nation-to-nation dialogue and relationship, we aren’t able to achieve this most vital of goals.”

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to inherent right to self-government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The inherent right is an existing Aboriginal right under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.

b. The Government of Canada’s policy on self-government describes the range of subjects that the federal government is willing to negotiate for self-government and it includes: matters internal to the group, integral to Aboriginal culture, and essential to operating as a government or institution.

c. Examples of areas for negotiation in the Government of Canada’s policy on self-government include: establishment of government structures and internal constitutions; membership; marriage; Aboriginal languages, culture and religion; education; health; social services; policing; enforcement of Aboriginal laws; and others.

d. The Government of Canada’s policy on self-government lists a number of other subject matters are not open to negotiation under two headings: 1) powers related to Canadian sovereignty, defence and external relations; and 2) other national interest powers.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to self-government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Aboriginal self-government refers to governments designed, established and administered by Aboriginal peoples under the Canadian Constitution through a process of negotiation with Canada and, where applicable, the provincial government.

b. In the Canadian context there is no single definition of self-government, and instead, points to three narratives that have informed political debate and policy development related to self-government in the past 30 years: self-government as self-administration (through delegated authority); self-government as an inherent right; and self-government as coexisting sovereignties.

c. Aboriginal self-government raises the question of how to reconcile a treaty-based association with a substantive conception of shared citizenship, which is considered by many to be a necessary condition to fostering a sense of solidarity and cooperation across communities that are bound to live together on a common territory.

d. Although discussions have been underway for many years, there are not yet any completed self-government in place in Canada.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.16. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples was established following the Oka Crisis in the summer of 1990 as part of a package of federal government initiatives in response to concerns arising from the crisis.

b. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples established a large and complex research agenda with four theme areas (governance; land and economy; social and cultural issues; and the North) each of which was to addressed from four perspectives (historical, women, youth and urban).

c. The main conclusion of the report was the need for a complete restructuring of the relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada.

d. Recognizing that there was little appetite among Canadians and their governments to undertake another round of constitutional negotiation, the Commission was careful to draft its recommendations in a way that could be implemented without constitutional change.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.17. Among statements a-d pertaining to Abele and Prince’s four models of Aboriginal self-government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Abele and Prince’s four models of Aboriginal self-government differ by the constitutional status of Aboriginal governments and their political relationship to the Canadian state system.

b. Abele and Prince’s four models include mini-municipalities, favoured by some provincial governments and non-Aboriginal academics.

c. Abele and Prince’s four models include adapted federalism, the model implicitly endorsed by the federal government, with new subnational entities in a modest adaptation of Canadian federalism.

d. Abele and Prince’s four models include nation-to-nation, supported by many Indigenous leaders where aboriginal governments would be part of a treaty-based alliance between the Aboriginal governments and the Crown in Canada.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.18. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between governance and self-government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Papillon claims that the most effective path to Aboriginal self-government is the development of demonstrably sound governance practices and greater self-sufficiency within the existing legal framework.

b. Papillon observes that the idea of an inherent Aboriginal right to self-government gained currency at a time of institutional instability when the constitutional battles of the 1980s and successive Supreme Court decisions defining the scope and meaning of Aboriginal rights proved a fertile ground for Aboriginal peoples to have their governing rights recognized by Canadian governments.

c. Papillon asserts that the context shifted drastically in the mid-1990s, as deficits and economic preoccupations came to occupy the forefront of the political agenda and autonomy for First Nations came to be equated with economic self-sufficiency rather than with an inherent political right.

d. Papillon suggests that the earlier commitment of federal and provincial governments to Aboriginal self-government has been replaced since the mid-1990s by a broader focus on Aboriginal governance and sector-specific agreements for the management of programs and services.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.19. Among statements a-d pertaining to Martin Papillon’s observations on what he calls the mosaic of Aboriginal governance choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In his review of the evolution of Aboriginal self-government in Canada, Papillon concludes that there exists “a mosaic of multilevel governance relations between Aboriginal nations and their federal and provincial counterparts, each with its own institutional framework and evolving dynamics” and he believes this points to “an alternative way for Aboriginal peoples to reshape their relationship with Canadian federalism.”

b. Papillon observes that significant shifts have taken place in the constitutional framework and institutions of Canadian federalism and these shifts remain very much a work in progress, with the extent and meaning of Aboriginal rights still being defined though the courts as well as through public and academic debates.

c. Papillon asserts Aboriginal governance is now increasingly being played out in multiple venues with provinces now playing an increasing role as a result of their involvement in treaty negotiations and in the process of administrative devolution to Aboriginal governments and organizations, and Aboriginal governments  increasingly proactive in developing their intergovernmental capacity.

d. Papillon suggests that this emerging multilevel mosaic offers what can, in effect, be defined as an alternative way for Aboriginal peoples to reshape their relationship with Canadian federalism, with change coming not from above, through formal constitutional processes, but rather from below, through the consolidation of Aboriginal governments’ capacity and legitimacy in exercises of governance.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.20. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The TRC was created to provide those directly or indirectly affected by the legacy of the Indian Residential Schools system with an opportunity to share their stories and experiences.

b. The TRC created a historical record of the residential schools system.

c. The TRC developed 94 calls to action under the headings of child welfare, education, language and culture, health, justice, United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Royal Proclamation and Covenant of Reconciliation, equity for Aboriginal people in the legal system, National Council for Reconciliation, professional development and training for public servants, church apologies and reconciliation, education for reconciliation, youth programs, museums and archives, missing children and burial information, National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, commemoration, media and reconciliation, sports and reconciliation, business and reconciliation, and newcomers to Canada.

d. The Government of Canada (as of February 2017) has yet to commit to addressing the calls to action.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.21. Among statements a-d pertaining to Indigenization choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Indigenization is the process of changing institutions and processes (particularly in the educational realm) to take greater account of the history, culture, and circumstances of Indigenous peoples.

b. Universities Canada has released a set of Principles on Indigenous Education which include recognizing the importance of providing greater exposure and knowledge for non-Indigenous students on the realities, histories, cultures and beliefs of Indigenous people in Canada.

c. All universities that are members of Universities Canada have committed to requiring at least one course on Indigenous studies for all undergraduates entering in fall 2017 and later.

d. Examples of Indigenization of a non-curricular nature that have already been adopted in some Canadian universities include buildings inspired by indigenous cultures, campus gardens with traditional plants, making powwows are a key part of ceremonial and cultural life, and street signs on campus roads in both English and an Indigenous language.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified on 12 March 2017.

Image: Indian Country Today Media Network, Tribal Nations Map, at http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2015/11/12/new-pre-contact-map-transforming-understanding-south-america-one-tribe-time-162324, accessed 3 October 2016.