Implementing through Partners and Networks

… a core topic in Implementation and Delivery and Atlas107

Topic description

This topic examines techniques for implementing through partners and networks.

Topic learning outcome

Upon completing this topic the student will be familiar with broad options for implementing through partners and networks, and be familiar with the concepts listed below.

Core concepts associated with this topic [DRAFT]
Using Partnership as a Policy Instrument

Using Internationalization as a Policy Instrument

Using Procedural and Institutional Policy Instruments

Network Targets

Policy Community

Advocacy Coalitions

Policy Networks

Kernaghan’s Classification of Partnerships

Partnerships and Horizontal Management

Public-Private Partnership Models

Atlas resource pages associated with this topic

TO COME

Open access readings for 8 hours of preparation

The Atlas pages for the concept entries noted above.

MORE TO COME

Recommended readings in MPP and MPA courses

Toronto PPG1007 Putting Policy into Action – Strategic Implementation of Public Objectives

TO COME

Concept comprehension questions

CCQ206.09.31. Among the statements a-d pertaining to using partnership as a policy instrument choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Partnership can be defined as the pattern of relations among members of the policy community.

b. If partnerships are conceived of as a policy instrument, then they will not simply appear; they will have to be created.

c. An interesting and new example of creative partnerships are social impact bonds, where government social service agencies issue the bonds, which are bought by private investors.

d. The basic logic is that government can either get out of some of the things that it has traditionally done and leave them to the private or nonprofit sectors, or it can continue to do those things in partnerships with those sectors.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.09.32. Among the statements a-d pertaining to using internationalization as a policy instrument choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Department of Global Affairs tries to coordinate foreign policy issues at the national level.

b. It is not simply a matter of single policy fields being projected upward to the international level but linkages across policy fields being developed by international agencies and communities of practice.

c. International agreements and international negotiations are becoming a routine instrument in the pursuit of domestic policy.

d. With the internationalization of so many policy fields, the organization of the foreign policy dossier calls for the centralization of a single foreign affairs department to take issues from all other policy fields.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.09.33. Among the statements a-d pertaining to using procedural and institutional policy choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organizational instruments take the state itself – its structure and management – as a target of public policy.

b. Governments increasingly come to rely on the use of a different set of procedural tools designed to indirectly affect outcomes through the manipulation of policy processes.

c. Sustainable governance involves a combination of governmental and nongovernmental institutions, processes, instruments, and actors, it entails more than simply a question of instrument choice.

d. Instruments are aimed less at delivery of policy and programs than at the restructuring of relationships either within the state or between the state and social partners.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.09.34. Among the statements a-d pertaining to network targets choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organizations and individuals should be granted high levels of autonomy and legitimacy as policy actors in their own right, not merely as recipients of government programs.

b. This approach requires a greater tolerance for potential failure and the possibility that partners will both make mistakes and have to learn from them.

c. The role of government is to facilitate and empower rather than to deliver and direct.

d. Policy instruments in this category have the character of mandates rather than inducements.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.09.35. Among the statements a-d pertaining to policy community choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A policy community can be defined as the actors in a policy network, presumably those who share at least some common language and conceptual reference points but who may be opponents on the issue.

b. Policy communities are groupings of government agencies, pressure groups, media people, and individuals, including academics, who, for various reasons, have an interest in a particular policy field and attempt to influence it.

c. Paul Pross argued that most of the inside players in a policy community try to keep debate within the realm of the technical and routine, and that the attentive public are the outsiders whose main influence on the process is to generate ideas and discussion through conferences, publications, and occasional lobbying.

d. In Pross’s view, the policy community is actually an insulating device to keep a grip on the process.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.09.36. Among the statements a-d pertaining to advocacy coalitions choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A distinctive feature of the advocacy coalition framework proposed by Paul Sabatier is its emphasis on the role of ideas and values in the policy process.

b. The first element in the belief system – very difficult to change through policy arguments – is the deep or normative core, which consists of fundamental axioms about human nature, justice, and priorities among values such as security, health, and life.

c. The second set of ideas is the near (policy) core, and it comprises notions about the proper scope of government activity, distributions of power and authority, orientations on substantive policy conflicts, and basic choices about policy instruments. These are difficult to change but can be altered if experience seriously differs from theory.

d. The final set contains secondary aspects and consists of instrumental decisions needed to implement the policy core, such as decisions about administrative rules, budgetary allocations, and statutory interpretation. These are comparatively easy to shift or change and constitute the bulk of technical policy argumentation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.09.37. Among the statements a-d pertaining to policy networks choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A policy network can be defined as the pattern of relations among members of the policy community.

b. The importance of policy networks and communities continues to grow but the realities of the policy process continue to change the nature and dynamic of those communities.

c. Networks are important today not only because they represent interests that have to be integrated into the policy process, or information that is crucial to analysis, or even important loci of opposition, but because they are important sinews for implementation and delivery.

d. Networks are based on formal agreements about objectives, resource sharing, and coordinating procedures.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.09.38. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Kernaghan’s classification of partnerships choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In an operational partnership the money or other forms of support for projects is managed by a third party.

b. In a consultative partnership there is active exchanging of advice and information.

c. In an collaborative partnership there is a sharing of both work and decision-making.

d. Partnerships can be a means of improving service delivery, getting better feedback, and encouraging civic engagement.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.09.39. Among the statements a-d pertaining to partnerships and horizontal management choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Horizontal management is the best way to approach every policy issue, since it encourages collaboration between all government departments.

b. It is best to think of horizontal management as a continuum running from a minimalist to a maximalist level of coordination.

c. Governments around the world are increasingly concerned with policy coherence and developing horizontality.

d. Interest in horizontality is extending to all levels of government bureaucracy, with the growing expectation that government departments will work more closely and collaboratively.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.09.40. Among the statements a-d pertaining to public-private partnership models choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A public-private partnership is a cooperative venture between the public and private sectors, built on the expertise of each partner, that best meets clearly defined public needs through the appropriate allocation of resources, risks and rewards.

b. In the Finance-Only model, a private entity, usually a financial services company, funds a project directly or uses various mechanisms such as a long-term lease or bond issue.

c. In the Design-Build-Finance-Maintain-Operate model, the private sector designs, builds, and finances an asset, provides hard and/or soft facility management services as well as operations under a long-term agreement.

d. In the Concession model, a private sector concessionaire undertakes investments and operates the facility for a fixed period of time after which the ownership reverts back to the public sector.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified on 22 May 2017.

Image: Nucleus Dynamics, at https://secure.emedicare.sg/ContentPageV02.aspx, accessed 7 April 2017.