Diversity, Identity, and Rights

… a core topic in Governance and Institutions and Atlas100

diversityTopic description

This topic explores governance and institutional challenges associated with group identity and protection of rights within a diverse society.

Topic learning outcome

Upon completing this topic the student will be familiar with important governance and institutional challenges associated with group identity and protection of rights within a diverse society, including the concepts in the table below.

Core concepts associated with this topic
Politics of Difference

Cultural Differences

Colonialism

Sexual Orientation

Religion and Religious Practices

Prejudice

Bias

Discrimination

Systemic Discrimination

Duty to Accommodate

Identity and Identity Politics

Identity and Rights

Intersectionality

Human Rights Laws

Viewpoint Diversity

Stereotype

Jessim’s Analysis of Stereotype Accuracy

Implicit Bias and the Harvard Implicit Association Test

Concept Creep

Victimhood Culture

Haidt’s Telos Choice – Either Truth or Social Justice

Atlas resource pages associated with this topic

Sex and Gender Terms

Distinctions between Race, Ethnicity, Nationality, and Culture

Is Race “Real”? – A Social Science Research Council Web Forum

Women’s Rights and Men’s Rights Movements

Political Correctness, Populism, and Freedom of Speech

Jordan Peterson’s PC Game

Jordan Peterson against Political Correctness Story (an Atlas case news story)

Open access readings for 8 hours of preparation

The Atlas pages for the concept and resource page entries noted above.

Ross Douthat (2017), Who Are We?, New York Times, 4 February 2017, at https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/04/opinion/who-are-we.html, accessed 6 February 2017.

Thomas Edsall (2017), The Peculiar Populism of Donald Trump, New York Times, 2 February 2017, at https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/02/opinion/the-peculiar-populism-of-donald-trump.html, accessed 6 February 2017.

Leslie Pal (2016), Social Challenges II, Diversity – Why a Challenge? at http://www.screencast.com/t/yDPUMuKjeP (41 minutes)

Leslie Pal (2016), Social Challenges II, Diversity – Policy Tools, at http://www.screencast.com/t/GJfOxWAAlZ35 (35 minutes)

Leslie Pal (2016), Social Challenges II, Diversity – Ishaq v. Canada, at http://www.screencast.com/t/bZ5QeOJvb, (28 minutes)

Shaun P. Young and Triadafilos Triadafilopoulos (2013), Multiculturalism as a Deliberative Ethic. Public Reason 5 (1): 49-68, at http://publicreason.ro/articol/80, accessed 20 October 2015.

Inder S. Marwah, Triadafilos Triadafilopoulos, and Steven White (2013), Immigration, Citizenship and Canada’s New Conservative Party, in James Farney and David Rayside (eds.) Conservatism in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2013), 95-119, at https://www.academia.edu/4416392/Immigration_Citizenship_and_Canada_s_New_Conservative_Party_Canadian_Conservatism_in_Comparative_Context_UTP_ accessed 20 October 2016.

Zack Taylor, Phil Triadafilopoulos, and Christopher Cochrane (2012), On the Backs of Immigrants?  Conservative Politics and New Canadian Voters, Canadian Political Science Association Conference, at https://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2012/Taylor.pdf, accessed 20 October 2016.

NPR Radio Lab (2008), “Race doesn’t exist. Or does it?” (22 minute audio), 28 November 2008, at http://www.radiolab.org/story/91654-race-doesnt-exist-or-does-it/.

Microaggressions – Power, Privilege, and Everyday Life (website) at http://www.microaggressions.com/

Michael Jonas (2007), The downside of diversity – A Harvard political scientist finds that diversity hurts civic life. What happens when a liberal scholar unearths an inconvenient truth? Boston Globe, 5 August 2007, at http://archive.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2007/08/05/the_downside_of_diversity/

John Skrentny (2014), Only Minorities Need Apply, New York Times, 6 May 2014, at https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/07/opinion/only-minorities-need-apply.html, accessed 11 December 2016.

George Lakoff (2008), Presentation on The Political Mind (63-minute video), Talks at Google, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=saDHFomGW3A, accessed 11 December 2016.

Mary Pattillo (2014), The Problem of Integration, NYU Furman Center, at http://furmancenter.org/research/iri/essay/the-problem-of-integration, accessed 11 December 2016.

June Kronholz (2008), Racial Identity’s Gray Area – The Definition of Whiteness Continues to Shift, Wall Street Journal, 12 June 2008, at http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB121322793544566177, accessed 11 December 2016.

Lani Guinier (2006), The Meritocracy Myth, Dollars & Sense, at http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/guinier/publications/dollars_sense.pdf, accessed 11 December 2016.

Social Justice Wiki (2016), Basic Concepts at http://sjwiki.org/wiki/Category:Basic_concepts, accessed 11 December 2016.

Social Justice Wiki (2016), Glossary at http://sjwiki.org/wiki/Glossary, accessed 11 December 2016.

PBS Frontline (1999), Secrets of the SAT – Why the national obsession with the SAT test? And how fair, reliable and democratic is it? at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/, with links to related resources, including:

Race Sensitive Policies in Admissions – a 30-year Study, at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/race/study.html

Interview with Abigail Thernstrom, at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/interviews/thernstrom.html

Interview with Christopher Jencks, at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/interviews/jencks.html

Interview with Lani Guinier, at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/interviews/guinier.html

accessed 14 December 2016.

University of Toronto, Gender Equity Guidelines for Department of Medicine Search Committees, at http://www.deptmedicine.utoronto.ca/gender-equity-guidelines-department-medicine-search-committees, accessed 6 February 2017.

Association of American Medical Colleges, What You Don’t Know: The Science of Unconscious Bias and What To Do About it in the Search and Recruitment Process, at https://www.aamc.org/members/leadership/catalog/178420/unconscious_bias.html, accessed 6 February 2017.

Project Implicit, Social Attitudes, at https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/, accessed 6 February 2017. Note: This is public site to access what is commonly known as the Harvard Implicit Association Test (IAT).

Francine Blau and Lawrence Kahn (2016), The Gender Wage Gap – Extent, Trends, and Expectations, NBER Working Paper No. 21913. The abstract is available at http://www.nber.org/papers/w21913 and a version is available online as IZA DP No. 9656 at http://ftp.iza.org/dp9656.pdf, accessed 14 November 2016.

Steven J. Dubner (2016), The True Story of the Gender Pay Gap, Interview with Harvard economist, Claudia Goldin, by Steven Dubner at Freakonomics Radio, text and 45-minute podcast at http://freakonomics.com/podcast/the-true-story-of-the-gender-pay-gap-a-new-freakonomics-radio-podcast/, accessed 1 November 2016.

Christina Hoff Sommers (2014), Is there systematic wage discrimination against women?, Factual Feminist, 14 July 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LrbS537nnso&list=PLytTJqkSQqtr7BqC1Jf4nv3g2yDfu7Xmd&index=38, accessed 5 November 2016.

Sally Satel (2015), Gender activists dismayed by this new reason for the wage gap, Factual Feminist, 9 February 2015, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UjwGt-buc0c, accessed 5 November 2016.

Kay Hymowitz (2013), Generous Work/Family Policies Don’t Guarantee Equality, Family Studies, at http://family-studies.org/generous-workfamily-policies/, accessed 2 November 2016.

Margaret Wente (2013), Do women really have it better in Sweden? Globe and Mail, 22 November 2013, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/do-women-really-have-it-better-in-sweden/article15552596/, accessed 2 November 2016.

Ontario Human Rights Commission (2001), An Intersectional Approach to Discrimination – Addressing Multiple Grounds in Human Rights Claims, at http://www.ohrc.on.ca/sites/default/files/attachments/An_intersectional_approach_to_discrimination%3A_Addressing_multiple_grounds_in_human_rights_claims.pdf, accessed 22 August 2016.

Peter Bregman (2012), Diversity Training Doesn’t Work, Harvard Business Review, 12 March, at https://hbr.org/2012/03/diversity-training-doesnt-work, accessed 1 November 2016.

Frank Dobbin, Alexandra Kalev, and Erin Kelly (2007), Diversity Training in Corporate America, Contexts, Vol. 6, Number 4, pp 21-27. ISSN 1536-5042, at http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/dobbin/files/2007_contexts_dobbin_kalev_kelly.pdf, accessed 1 November 2016.

Lee Jussim, Jonathan Haidt, and Chris Martin (2016), Heterodox Academy, at http://heterodoxacademy.org/problems/, accessed 15 November 2016.

Clay Routledge (2016), We Champion Racial, Gender and Cultural Diversity – Why Not Viewpoint Diversity? Scientific American, 24 October 2016, at https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/we-champion-racial-gender-and-cultural-diversity-why-not-viewpoint-diversity/, accessed 15 November 2016.

Lee Jussim (2014), Stereotype Inaccuracy: A Belief Impervious to Data When are liberals anti-scientific, Psychology Today, 1 August, at https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/rabble-rouser/201408/stereotype-inaccuracy-belief-impervious-data, accessed 17 December 2016.

Saul McLeod (2015), Stereotypes, Simply Psychology, at http://www.simplypsychology.org/katz-braly.html, accessed 18 December 2016.

Jesse Singal, Psychology’s Favorite Tool for Measuring Racism Isn’t Up to the Job, New York Magazine’s Science of US, 11 January 2017, at http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2017/01/psychologys-racism-measuring-tool-isnt-up-to-the-job.html, accessed 16 January 2017.

Nick Haslam (2016). Concept creep: Psychology’s expanding concepts of harm and pathology, Psychological Inquiry, 27, p. 1-17, at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1047840X.2016.1082418, accessed 16 April 2016.

Jonathan Haidt (2016). Why Concepts Creep to the Left, Psychological Inquiry, 27, p. 40-45, at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1047840X.2016.1115713, accessed 16 April 2016.

Jonathan Haidt (2016). The Most Dangerous Creep On Campus, The Heterodox Academy, 9 April 2016, at http://heterodoxacademy.org/2016/04/09/the-most-dangerous-creep/, accessed 16 April 2016.

Jonathan Haidt and Nick Halsam (2016), Campuses are places for open minds – not where debate is closed down, The Guardian, 10 April 2016, at http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/apr/10/students-censorship-safe-places-platforming-free-speech, accessed 16 April 2016.

Bradley Campbell and Jason Manning (2014), Microaggression and Moral Cultures, Comparative Sociology, Vol.13, No.6, pp.692-726. PDF available at Academia.edu at https://www.academia.edu/10541921/Microaggression_and_Moral_Cultures.

Jonathan Haidt (2016). Victimhood culture explains what is happening at Emory, The Heterodox Academy, 26 March 2016, at http://heterodoxacademy.org/2016/03/26/victimhood-culture-at-emory/, accessed 16 April 2016.

Jonathan Haidt (2016), Why Universities Must Choose One Telos: Truth or Social Justice, Heterodox Academy, 21 October 2016, at http://heterodoxacademy.org/2016/10/21/one-telos-truth-or-social-justice/, accessed 23 October 2016.

Jonathan Haidt (2016), “Two incompatible sacred values in American universities” Jon Haidt, Hayek Lecture Series, 6 October 2016, 66-minute YouTube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gatn5ameRr8, accessed 23 October 2016.

Recommended open access readings in MPP/MPA courses

NYU PADM2129 Race, Identity, and Inclusion in Organizations

NPR Radio Lab (2008), “Race doesn’t exist. Or does it?” (22 minute audio), 28 November 2008, at http://www.radiolab.org/story/91654-race-doesnt-exist-or-does-it/.

Microaggressions – Power, Privilege, and Everyday Life (website) at http://www.microaggressions.com/

Michael Jonas (2007), The downside of diversity – A Harvard political scientist finds that diversity hurts civic life. What happens when a liberal scholar unearths an inconvenient truth? Boston Globe, 5 August 2007, at http://archive.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2007/08/05/the_downside_of_diversity/

John Skrentny (2014), Only Minorities Need Apply, New York Times, 6 May 2014, at https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/07/opinion/only-minorities-need-apply.html, accessed 11 December 2016.

Julianne Hing (2012), How Diversity Trumped Equity – and May Kill Affirmative Action, Colorlines, 10 October 2012, at https://www.colorlines.com/articles/how-diversity-trumped-equity-and-may-kill-affirmative-action, accessed 11 December 2016.

Crossroads Anti-Racism Organizing and Training (2007), Teaching and training methodology documentation and evaluation report, at http://crossroadsantiracism.org/wp-content/themes/crossroads/PDFs/Crossroads_Anti-Racism_Documentation_w-_Appendices.pdf, accessed 11 December 2016.

CompassPoint Nonprofit Services (n.d.), Multicultural organizational development in nonprofit organizations: Lessons from the Cultural Competence Learning initiative, at http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/files/CP_Cultural_Competence_Lessons.pdf, accessed 11 December 2016.

Gara Lamarche (2008), Taking Account of Race as a Philanthropic Imperative, The Atlantic Philanthropies, 3 October 2008, at http://www.atlanticphilanthropies.org/speeches/taking-account-race-philanthropic-imperative, accessed 11 December 2016.

William Yardley (2008), Racial Shift in a Progressive City Spurs Talks, New York Times, 29 May 2008, at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/29/us/29portland.html, accessed

NYU PADM2447 Majorities, Minorities, and Group Identities In America – Status, Rights, and Public Policy

George Lakoff (2008), Presentation on The Political Mind (63-minute video), Talks at Google, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=saDHFomGW3A, accessed 11 December 2016.

Mary Pattillo (2014), The Problem of Integration, NYU Furman Center, at http://furmancenter.org/research/iri/essay/the-problem-of-integration, accessed 11 December 2016.

June Kronholz (2008), Racial Identity’s Gray Area – The Definition of Whiteness Continues to Shift, Wall Street Journal, 12 June 2008, at http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB121322793544566177, accessed 11 December 2016.

Lani Guinier (2006), The Meritocracy Myth, Dollars & Sense, at http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/guinier/publications/dollars_sense.pdf, accessed 11 December 2016.

Adam Liptak (2006), Brown v. Board of Education, Second Round, New York Times, 10 December 2006, at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/weekinreview/10liptak.html, accessed 11 December 2016.

Sources

Anna C. Korteweg and Triadafilos Triadafilopoulos (2015), Is multiculturalism dead? Groups, governments and the ‘real work of integration’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Volume 38, Issue 5. Abstract at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01419870.2014.907925, accessed 20, October 2016.

Concept comprehension questions

AQ100.08.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to cultural differences choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Cultural differences include all the ways in which customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of social groups differ.

b. Given that one of fundamental roles of any system of governance is resolving differences in preferences and claims, the cultural differences associated with an increasingly diverse society can be viewed as a governance challenge.

c. Although there are substantial value differences among cultures, scholars such as Isiah Berlin have been able to demonstrate that the realization of one set of values need not involve sacrifice of other values.

d. There is evidence that members of different cultures think differently, partly because different cultures introduce people to different kinds of concepts.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between ethnicity and culture choose the one that is most valid or choose e if none are valid.

a. Ethnicity refers to people who identify themselves based on common ancestral, cultural and social experiences; culture refers to the beliefs, values and norms of a group of people.

b. Ethnicity refers to the values, beliefs and norms of a group of people; culture refers to a group of people that share common physical characteristics.

c. Ethnicity and culture can be used interchangeably.

d. Ethnicity refers to people who identify themselves based on common ancestral, cultural and social experiences; culture refers to individuals sharing common ancestral and social experiences based on country of origin.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.08.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to colonialism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Colonialism is the same as imperialism.

b. Colonialism is involves the subjugation of one people to another.

c. Colonialism as a broad concept that refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s.

d. The legitimacy of colonialism has been a longstanding concern for political and moral philosophers in the Western tradition. Political theorists have struggled with the difficulty of reconciling ideas about justice and natural law with the practice of European sovereignty over non-Western peoples. One way of reconciling those apparently opposed principles was the argument known as the “civilizing mission,” which suggested that a temporary period of political dependence or tutelage was necessary in order for “uncivilized” societies to advance to the point where they were capable of sustaining liberal institutions and self-government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to sexual orientation choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Sexual orientation as an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions to men, women, or both sexes. Sexual orientation also refers to a person’s sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions.

b. Research over several decades has demonstrated that sexual orientation ranges along a continuum, from exclusive attraction to the other sex to exclusive attraction to the same sex.

c. Sexual orientation is usually discussed in terms of three categories: heterosexual (having emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions to members of the other sex), gay/lesbian (having emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions to members of one’s own sex), and bisexual (having emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions to both men and women).

d. The National Center for Health Statistics issued a report in 2014 providing national estimates for indicators of health-related behaviors by sexual orientation using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) of 34,557 American adults aged 18 and over. In the survey 8.0 percent of American adults identified as gay or lesbian and 3.5 percent identified as bisexual.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between sex and gender choose the one that is most valid or choose e if none are valid.

a. Sex and gender are used interchangeably and are defined as the same thing.

b. Sex is an individual’s biological status and is determined by a number of biological factors; gender is the attitudes and behaviours that determine an individual’s biological sex.

c. Sex is an individual’s biological status and is determined by a number of biological factors; gender is the attitudes and behaviours that society assigns to people of a certain sex.

d. Sex refers to an individual’s biological status and is determined by a number of biological factors; gender refers to the attitudes and behaviours that society assigns to a particular sex and can never deviate from the assigned sex.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.08.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to religion and religious practices choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Societies, if well governed, can avoid value conflict over religion.

b. Religion can be described as a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs.

c. Religious differences require societies to deal with irreconcilable value conflict. Isaiah Berlin argued that the world that we encounter in ordinary experience is one in which we are faced with choices between many ends equally ultimate, and claims equally absolute, the realization of some of which must inevitably involve the sacrifice of others.

d. Will Kymlicka has observed that prior to the Second World War, ethno-cultural and religious diversity in Canada and other liberal states was characterized by illiberal and undemocratic relations between conqueror and conquered; colonizer and colonized; master and slave; settler and indigenous; racialized and unmarked; normalized and deviant; orthodox and heretic; civilized and primitive; ally and enemy.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to prejudice choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Prejudice is often defined as an unfair and unreasonable opinion or feeling, especially when formed without thought or knowledge.

b. Many leading psychologists see prejudice as being natural, often rational, and often even moral.

c. Psychological evidence indicates that prejudice flows from in-group vs. out-group feelings and virtually everyone feels a pull towards their in-group.

d. The psychological evidence to date suggests that prejudice cannot be substantially affected by appeals to people’s empathy, by rational argument, or by legal constraints.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to cognitive bias choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In common usage, the term bias means an inclination or prejudice for or against one person or group, especially in a way considered to be unfair.

b. A psychological definition of cognitive bias is an involuntary pattern of thinking that produces distorted perceptions of people, surroundings, and situations around us.

c. Cognitive biases serve as mental shortcuts.

d. Cognitive biases were likely helpful in evolutionary terms by inducing quick reactions when people had limited mental processing capabilities due to lack of time or lack of knowledge about a subject or situation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.09. Among the statements a-e pertaining the distinction between bias and prejudice choose the one that is least valid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Prejudice is a form of bias.

b. Bias is a more general term that refers to a tendency; prejudice is an unfair or unreasonable opinion.

c. Although bias can be partly based on factual observation, prejudice comes from elements of bias that have no basis in reality.

d. Bias can lead to prejudice and forming stereotypes.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to discrimination choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Discrimination is an action or a decision that treats a person or a group negatively for reasons such as their race, age or disability.

b. Discrimination is usually based on group stereotypes and stereotype beliefs about group characteristics bear almost no relation to empirical reality.

c. Legal means to combat discrimination are found in human rights codes and laws. For example, the Canadian Human Rights Act, outlaws seven discriminatory practices (e.g., denying someone goods, services, facilities, or accommodation) for any of the following eleven grounds: race; national or ethnic origin; colour; religion; age; sex; sexual orientation; marital status; family status; disability; and a conviction for which a pardon has been granted or a record suspended.

d. The Ontario Human Rights Code includes a similar list of grounds to the Canadian Human Rights Act, with the notable difference of including gender identity and gender expression. The grounds for discrimination in Ontario are: race; colour; ancestry; place of origin; citizenship; ethnic origin; creed (religion); receipt of social assistance (housing only); disability; age; marital status; family status; sex or gender (includes being pregnant, sexual harassment); sexual orientation; gender identity; gender expression; and record of offenses (employment only, must have been pardoned).

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.11. Among the statements a-e pertaining the distinction between discrimination and intersectionality choose the one that is least valid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Discrimination refers to the unjust treatment of different categories of people; intersectionality is a combination of different forms of discrimination.

b. Ageism, sexism, disablism and racism are all types of discrimination; an example of intersectionality would be a combination of racism and sexism against minority women.

c. Discrimination refers to the unjust treatment of different categories of people; intersectionality includes the study of situations in which people are doubly or even triply disadvantaged.

d. Discrimination refers to the unjust treatment of different categories of people; intersectionality refers discrimination on the basis of only to discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to systemic discrimination choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Systemic discrimination is practices or attitudes that have, whether by design or impact, the effect of limiting an individual’s or a group’s right to the opportunities generally available because of attributed rather than actual characteristics.

b. The law is clear that intention to discriminate is required to prove that discrimination occurred and therefore systemic discrimination refers to a measureable negative effect or impact of certain standards, policies, or behaviour.

c. Systemic discrimination occurs when a mix of rules or practices that may not seem discriminatory when looked at individually, together result in discrimination.

d. Systemic and individual discrimination are assessed the same way: has the individual or group suffered arbitrary or unjustified negative effects or barriers based on a characteristic (such as disability, sex, or age) listed in the act.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to duty to accommodate choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. For an employer or service provider the duty to accommodate means the obligation to take steps to eliminate different and negative treatment of individuals, or groups of individuals based on prohibited grounds of discrimination.

b. The duty to accommodate means that in order to be fair it is necessary to treat people equally.

c. The duty to accommodate has limits and it is not necessary to provide  accommodation if it would cause the organization undue hardship by, for example, costing too much or creating risks to health or safety.

d. There is no precise legal definition of undue hardship and each situation should be viewed as unique and assessed individually based on evidence provided by the employer or service provider on the nature and extent of the hardship.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to identity and identity politics choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Identity can be defined as the characteristics determining who or what a person or thing is.

b. Identity politics refers to a tendency for people of a particular religion, race, social background, or other identity group, to form exclusive political alliances, moving away from traditional broad-based party politics.

c. Identity politics has come to signify a wide range of political activity and theorizing founded in the commitment to the traditional values of a cultural group that constitute, or recently constituted, the dominant group in a country or region.

d. Identity politics has come to signify a wide range of political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice of members of certain social groups.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to identity and rights choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The right to personal identity is recognised in international law and is legally enforced by the Geneva-based United Nations Human Rights Council but this agency does not currently have sufficient resources to do its job effectively.

b. Human rights law exists to ensure that individual lifestyle choices are protected from majoritarian or populist infringement.

c. From as early as birth, an individual’s identity is formed and preserved by registration or by being bestowed with a name.

d. Despite the complexity of personal identity, it is preserved and encouraged through privacy, personality rights and the right to self-expression.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.16. Among statements a-d pertaining to diversity and equality choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The concepts of diversity and equality are somewhat in tension because the former is about recognizing and embracing differences within an institution, workforce, or society while the latter is about fairness, particularly about universal access to employment and social services.

b. There are substantial differences between those with left-leaning views and those with right-leaning views about the appropriate way to address societal diversity and equality.

c. Those on the left tend to view fairness as equality of treatment while those on the right are more concerned with equality of outcomes.

d. Those on the left tend to view differences in group average outcomes as being primarily due to systemic discrimination while those on the right tend to view them as primarily due to differences in initial opportunities and to differences in preferences, capacities, and effort.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.17. Among statements a-d pertaining to affirmative action choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Affirmative action seeks to level the playing field for employment and educational opportunities through active measures to ensure that selection processes treat everyone equally and are completely free from systemic or personal bias.

b. Historically and internationally, support for affirmative action has sought to achieve goals such as bridging inequalities in employment and pay, increasing access to education.

c. Affirmative action is the policy of favoring members of a disadvantaged group who suffer or have suffered from discrimination within a culture.

d. The nature of affirmative action policies varies from region to region with some countries using quota systems and other countries providing minority group members with preference or special consideration in selection processes.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.18. Among statements a-d pertaining to the gender wage gap choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The OECD defines the gender wage gap as the difference between median earnings of men and women relative to median earnings of men, where data refer to full-time employees and to self-employed.

b. The OECD measure of the gender wage gap for 2015 shows Canada’s gender wage gap at 18.6 percent, slightly lower than that of the United States (18.9 percent) and substantially higher than that in Belgium (3.3 percent).

c. Leading economists such as Harvard’s Claudia Goldin who study the gender wage gap in the United States have concluded that most of the gap is attributable to work and family choices rather than to systemic discrimination.

d. The most recent Canadian study of the gender wage gap, conducted by the Government of Ontario’s Gender Wage Gap Committee and completed in 2016, examined in detail the extent to which the current gender wage gap in Canada can plausibly be attributable to work and family choices.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.19. Among statements a-d pertaining to intersectionality choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Intersectionality can be defined as oppression that arises out of the combination of various oppressions which, together, produce something unique and distinct from any one form of discrimination standing alone.

b. An intersectional analysis can address the extent to which racial minority women experience discrimination in a completely different way than racial minority men or even women as a gender because groups often experience distinctive forms of stereotyping or barriers based on a combination of race and gender.

c. An intersectional analysis can be informed by developments in gender equality analysis, critical race analysis, disability rights analysis and equality rights jurisprudence.

d. An intersectional analysis can become one of the lenses through which the social context of the individual can be examined and can, in some measure, address social conditions relating to poverty, low income and homelessness.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.20. Among statements a-d pertaining to the human rights laws choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In many countries, including Canada, human rights laws stem from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

b. Canada’s human rights laws are part of the Constitution.

c. The Canadian Human Rights Act of 1977 protects people in Canada from discrimination when they are employed by or receive services from the federal government, First Nations governments, or private companies that are regulated by the federal government.

d. Ontario’s Human Rights Code was the first human rights code in Canada and is a key element of human rights law in the province.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.21. Among statements a-d pertaining to viewpoint diversity choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Advocates of viewpoint diversity within the academy would like to see greater emphasis in both teaching and research on the perspectives of the many underprivileged groups whose concerns are not yet adequately addressed by mainstream society.

b. Advocates of viewpoint diversity claim that scholarship in the social sciences and related fields such as law and public policy would be better served if there were greater diversity of viewpoints among researchers.

c. Advocates of viewpoint diversity claim that some ideas become widely accepted without any real evidence because they support particular political or moral agendas.

d. Advocates of viewpoint diversity claim that the following ideas have become entrenched even though the evidence suggests that they are highly questionable: humans are a blank slate and human nature does not exist; and all differences between human groups are caused by differential treatment of those groups.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.22. Among statements a-d pertaining to stereotypes choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A stereotype can be defined as a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.

b. The use of stereotypes is a major way in which people simplify their social world; since they reduce the amount of processing (i.e., thinking) they have to do when they meet a new person.

c. The use of stereotypes lets people ignore differences between individuals and to make generalizations about individuals that might not be true.

d. Most stereotypes have little basis in fact and can be refuted with careful social science research.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.23. Among statements a-d pertaining to Rutgers social psychology professor Lee Jessim’s analysis of stereotype accuracy choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The majority of social scientists no longer claim, assume, or imply that stereotypes are inaccurate.

b. In his review of research assessing stereotype accuracy, Lee Jussim defines stereotype accuracy as the extent to which people’s beliefs about groups correspond to those groups’ actual characteristics.

c. In his review of research assessing stereotype accuracy, Lee Jussim concludes that there is some evidence of inaccuracy in stereotypes, especially national stereotypes of personality.

d. In his review of research assessing stereotype accuracy, Lee Jussim concludes that stereotype accuracy is far more replicable than many far more famous “effects” in social psychology.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.24. Among the statements a-e pertaining to stereotype and stereotype accuracy choose the one that is least valid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A stereotype is a belief about the characteristics of a social group but the accuracy of stereotypes can not be properly measured.

b. A stereotype is an oversimplified image or idea about a particular person or group and stereotype accuracy refers to the extent to which beliefs correspond to actual characteristics.

c. Stereotypes have advantages and disadvantages and it is possible to measure the accuracy of stereotypes.

d. Stereotypes lead to social categorization and potential prejudice but the accuracy of stereotypes is often disputed.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.25. Among statements a-d pertaining to implicit bias and the Harvard implicit association test choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Implicit bias is a term referring to relatively unconscious and relatively automatic features of prejudiced judgment and social behavior.

b. An example of the effects of implicit bias would be a person who explicitly believes that women and men are equally suited for careers outside the home but, despite this explicitly egalitarian belief, the person might nevertheless implicitly associate women with the home, and this implicit association might lead that person to behave in any number of biased ways, from trusting feedback from female co-workers less to hiring equally qualified men over women.

c. The Harvard implicit association test (IAT) provides a free online test that many organizations encourage members of selection committees take to help them recognize their own implicit biases in order to take account of them in the process of selecting candidates.

d. Several recent studies have concluded that the Harvard implicit association test (IAT) meets the quality-control standards normally expected of psychological instruments and that the IAT is a reliable measure that correlates sufficiently with real-world outcomes to be a useful predictions of individuals’ behavior.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.26. Among statements a-d pertaining to concept creep choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Many of psychology’s concepts have undergone semantic shifts in recent years.

b. These conceptual changes follow a consistent trend with concepts that refer to the negative aspects of human experience and behavior expanding their meanings so that they now encompass a much broader range of phenomena than before.

c. Concept creep can be seen in concepts such as abuse, bullying, trauma, mental disorder, addiction, and prejudice.

d. Advocates of viewpoint diversity claim that the main contributor to concept creep is an ever-increasing sensitivity to harm, reflecting a liberal moral agenda.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.27. Among statements a-d pertaining to concept creep and viewpoint diversity choose the one that is most valid or choose e if none are valid.

a. Viewpoint diversity refers to the idea that educational institutions have narrowed their scope of teaching to the far left and thus should use methods like concept creep to expand the meaning of concepts to the far right.

b. Viewpoint diversity entails challenging students’ beliefs and teach them to think to embrace concept creep.

c. Concept creep refers to the expansion of the meaning of certain concepts to include additional phenomena and points to the need for greater viewpoint diversity.

d. Concept creep refers to the expansion of the meaning of certain concepts to include new phenomena as a result of greater viewpoint diversity.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.08.28. Among statements a-d pertaining to the description of victimhood culture choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In a victimhood culture, when intolerable conflicts arise, society prescribes direct but non-violent actions, such as negotiated compromise geared toward solving the problem, or if the offense is sufficiently severe, people are to go to the police or appeal to the courts, with the ideal of using the courts as quickly, quietly, and rarely as possible.

b. In a victimhood culture domination is the main form of deviance, and victimization a way of attracting sympathy, so rather than emphasize either their strength or inner worth, the aggrieved emphasize their oppression and social marginalization leading to a society where complaint to third parties has supplanted both toleration and negotiation.

c. In a victimhood culture people increasingly demand help from others, and advertise their oppression as evidence that they deserve respect and assistance, with the effect that the moral status of the victim has risen to new heights.

d. In a victimhood culture people are intolerant of insults, even if unintentional, and react by bringing them to the attention of authorities or to the public at large.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.29. Among statements a-d pertaining to the description of Jonathan Haidt’s telos choice for universities (truth or social justice) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Haidt claims that the pursuit of truth and the pursuit of social justice are two incompatible values in universities.

b. Haidt claims that scholars, like everyone else, are susceptible to motivated reasoning whereby if people want to believe a proposition they ask themselves “Can I believe it?” but if the don’t want to believe a proposition they ask “Must I believe it?” and that this leads to predicable distortions in scientific inquiry.

c. Haidt claims that motivated reasoning leads to scholarship undertaken to support a political agenda almost always succeeding, and the propagation of pleasing falsehoods that cannot be removed from circulation, even after they are debunked.

d. Haidt claims that are two major kinds of justice that activists are seeking: finding and eradicating disparate treatment (which is always a good thing to do, and which never conflicts with truth), and finding and eradicating disparate outcomes, without regard for disparate inputs or third variables, and that it is this latter part which causes all of the conflicts with truth.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified on 27 March 2017.

Image: Leslie Pal, Carleton University, Lecture slide from PADM5120, Modern Challenges to Governance, at http://www.screencast.com/t/yDPUMuKjeP, accessed 18 October 2016.