Glossary from Pal’s Beyond Policy Analysis

… an Atlas Resource Page for Policy Analysis and Process;
 Implementation and Delivery; Governance and Institutions;
and Evaluation and Performance Measurement

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Glossary description

This page reproduces the 261 Key Terms from Beyond Policy Analysis – a text book, written by Atlas co-editor Leslie A. Pal (reference below, summary at Beyond Policy Analysis – Book Highlights) and frequently referenced in the Atlas of Public Management.

The entries are listed alphabetically without regard to the book chapter. For a chapter-by-chapter listing see Glossary from Pal’s Beyond Policy Analysis – Chapter by Chapter.

accountability – the quality of being accountable to another for one’s actions; entailing an obligation to respond to questions and regularly report

accounting officer – designation of a deputy head of a federal department as personally responsible and accountable to Parliament for the administration and management of a department

accounting unit – in doing cost-benefit analysis, the unit or jurisdiction in which costs and benefits will be ascribed

advocacy coalition – a wide range of actors, including government from all levels, officials, interest organizations, research groups, journalists, and even other countries, who share a belief system about a policy area and over time demonstrate some degree of coordinated activities

advocacy – an effort to defend or promote a policy issue through broad strategies to change the context of discussion, problem definitions, public perceptions, or the configuration and coalition of stakeholder interests

agencification – breaking up government departments into quasiautonomous agencies with more flexible management practices, and usually contractual relationships with political authorities based on performance requirements

agenda-setting – the social and political process of determining what issues to address and in what priority

alternative service delivery – a term used in the 1990s, but less so now, to describe attempts to deliver government services outside a traditional departmental format, in partnership for example with the private sector or NGOs, or through contracting out

alternative service delivery – the use of nontraditional means to deliver public services (e.g., commercialized firms, partnerships, single-window service centres)

argument mapping – a technique to map and classify the different components of policy arguments made by stakeholders, such as arguments based on statistics, authority, values, intuition, or judgment NEL-PAL-12-0705-003.indd 123 18/09/12 9:31 AM 124 Beyond Policy Analysis NEL

associational system – constellation of small, medium, and large groups, competing and cooperating as they feel necessary

assumptional analysis – aims at developing a synthesis of the different assumptions that stakeholders have about the issue or problem. Involves canvassing the full range of solutions proposed for the issue or problem and using that as a vehicle for analyzing and challenging the assumptions that underlie the problem definition

attentive public – the outsiders whose main influence on the process is to generate ideas and discussion through conferences, publications, and occasional lobbying

attribution problem – the difficulty of determining what the specific contribution of a policy or program intervention has been to outcomes, in contrast to all other possible factors that might have affected those outcomes

backward mapping – a technique to work out what the policy will look like in terms of delivery of programs at the final point of service, and hence what the implementation needs are at that point

binding rules – rules or regulations that have the coercive power of law behind them

boundary analysis – a technique to canvass the whole range of existing definitions and conceptualizations of a given problem

bounded rationality – a term invented by Herbert Simon to capture the idea that most human decisionmaking takes place under various constraints rather than ideal conditions of complete information and unlimited processing capacities

brainstorming – a family of techniques, more or less formal, to generate ideas, goals, and strategies; can involve informal and unstructured exchange to scenario writing

cap and trade – a regulatory tool that caps carbon emissions and then allows companies over their limit to purchase allowances on markets that have been made available by companies below their limit

carbon tax – a tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels

cash transfer – money provided by the government for broad support rather than in connection with a specific project or endeavour

causal chain – the link of various causes and effects in producing outcomes in the implementation process

causal images – a shorthand conceptualization of complex cause-and effect relationships

Charter Mark (U.K.) – a scheme to engage independent assessors to judge and certify public sector organizations on their performance with customers and clients

citizen engagement – bringing citizens and groups directly into the decisionmaking and policy implementation process

Citizen’s Charter (U.K.) – introduced by John Major in 1991 and designed to alter bureaucratic practices by publicly stating government service obligations to citizens

citizen-centred service delivery – ensuring that clients get what they want and that resources are allocated accordingly by focusing on citizens first and assessing their needs and their levels of satisfaction

citizens’ jury – a randomly selected jury of about 18 individuals that hears from a variety of expert witnesses and deliberates together on a given issue

citizenship – traditional collection of civil and political rights that aim to treat individuals roughly the same, regardless of their social and economic differences

classification analysis – breaking down the policy problem phenomenon into logically distinct categories or classes

clearances – the number of agreements required by multiple sets of actors in order for implementation to go forward

client satisfaction – degree to which customers or clients of a service are happy with that service

collective identities – widely shared characteristics such as race or language that are politically salient as a way of orienting oneself in politics

constructivism – philosophical position that there can be no absolutely conclusive proof of anything outside a shared paradigm of understandings

consultation – process whereby government gauges the views and opinions of nongovernmental organizations, citizen groups, and associations

contract – a binding agreement between two or more parties

contrasted group design – an experimental evaluation design where recipients are compared to nonrecipients, and the differences are ascribed to the program

contributions – cash transfer subject to performance conditions that are specified in a contribution agreement

control group – in experimental designs, the randomly assigned group that will not be the recipient of the intervention or program and that will form the basis of comparison with the experimental group

co-production – production of goods or services jointly by various partners

cost–benefit analysis – evaluation of a program in terms of its total costs compared to its total benefits, expressed in monetary terms

cost-effectiveness analysis – compares different program alternatives for achieving a given set of goals; it is also applied by considering a fixed budget and choosing alternatives that provide the highest rate of goal achievement

crisis – a turning point or moment of danger that threatens the integrity of an entire system

cultural identity – a normative base for making specific rights claims on behalf of individuals who are members of specific cultural groups

decentralization – devolution of responsibilities to other government jurisdictions or third parties, and restructuring accountability relationships within government departments

decision chain – the sequence of agreements, decisions, or clearances that have to be surmounted in order for the implementation process to move forward

decision points – a single stage in a decision chain requiring clearances and agreements before movement to the next point is possible

decline of deference – the decline in citizens’ trust and confidence in their governments and increasing desire to be consulted, to participate, and to be heard in policy development

deep core beliefs – used in the advocacy coalition approach to designate beliefs that are almost impervious to change and argument, such as human nature

deficit reduction – a fiscal policy to reduce and eventually eradicate the budget deficit

deliberative democracy – a form of democracy that goes well beyond simply periodic majority voting, it emphasizes the importance of citizens, together, discussing and debating public problems, sharing perspectives, and trying to find solutions through consensus

deliberative polling – a technique that usually involves between 250 and 600 people who form a representative sample of the community and who are first polled on their views on an issue, informed in some depth on that issue, and then polled again

departmental performance report (DPR) – annual report on performance of each federal department for the previous fiscal year

dependent variable – the variable that is being explained

deregulation – the process of reducing the number, incidence, and cost of regulations

diagnostic procedures – procedures in which the evaluators are often involved in generating and analyzing data that are relevant to problem definition, trend forecasting, and program design aspects

discount rate – the rate chosen to discount future benefits, usually assessed as the opportunity costs of capital, meaning the rate of return if program sums were invested in the private sector

discourse – similar to policy paradigm, but more directly connected to the frameworks of argument and thought whereby people make sense of the world around them

emergency management – the process of developing and implementing policies and programs to avoid and cope with the risks to people and property from natural and man-made hazards

emergency – an abnormal and unexpected threat event that requires immediate action

emergent strategies – consistent patterns of behaviour that emerge or form rather than being planned

empirical analysis – takes logical analysis one step further: not what might be the likely effect of policy X, but what was its actual effect?

empowerment – the provision of real powers and authorities to the government’s other partners in the policy process

environmental scan – an assessment of both internal and external risks, usually in terms of strengths and weaknesses, and threats and opportunities

epistemic community – originally developed in the field of international relations, this concept tries to capture the influence of international groups of scientific experts on policymaking; for example, in the environmental field

executive summary – usually no more than two pages, either as a stand-alone document or the summary of a much longer one, intended to provide the essence

exhortation – the use of information resources to make direct appeals

expenditure – disbursement of monies

experimental design – the evaluation of impact based on randomly assigned experimental and control groups

experimental group – the randomly assigned group to which the program or intervention is applied in an experimental design

Federal Accountability Act – major piece of public sector reform legislation introduced by the Conservative government in 2006 to deal with political party financing, lobbyists, and whistle-blowers, and to strengthen a host of institutions such as the Auditor General

focusing events – sudden catastrophes or crises that grab attention

formative evaluation – evaluation designed to support development and improvement of a program as it is being implemented

forward mapping – the conventional technique of implementation analysis that starts with as clear a statement as possible of the policymaker’s intent and proceeds through a sequence of increasingly specific steps to define what is expected of implementers at each level

framework policies – a technique whereby government sets the broad parameters for policy outcomes but lets others deliver programs

free market capitalism – a type of capitalism that emphasizes smaller government, the minimum of controls and regulations, and wide scope for markets in the delivery of goods and services

functional model – the model in which the tasks of policy advice and implementation are generally carried out by separate agencies

gender mainstreaming – an organizational strategy to ensure that a gender perspective is reflected in all types of organizational activities; championed by the United Nations as a means for achieving gender equality internationally

gender-based analysis (GBA) – a process that assesses the differential impact of public policies, programs, and legislation (proposed or existing) on women and men in terms of their social and economic circumstances, as well as their relationships in key social institutions such as the family

general goals – policy goals that enjoy a majority consensus or that express the broadest objectives of the policy initiative as a whole

Getting Government Right – a program of federal management reform led by the Treasury Board Secretariat through the late 1990s, which sought to implement wide-ranging public sector reforms to achieve more effective and efficient governance

global civil society – an emerging series of networks of activist NGOs and connected nongovernmental institutions that can be mobilized quickly around policy issues

global public policy networks – quasi-official constellations of state actors, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations that do more than advocate, but develop and sometimes even implement policies and assist in global coordination

global supply chain – also known as global value chain, represents the distribution of corporate functions (management, finances, communication, production) across the globe

globality – the sense that the entire planet is a single social space, that people carry on conversations in that space irrespective of territoriality, that they pay collective and simultaneous attention to “global events”

globalization system – the idea that globalization is not simply a matter of greater interdependence but is also a system with its own dynamics and logic

globalization – the progressive exposure of domestic economies and polities to a wide range of international forces, and the increased interdependence that comes with it

governance – the process of governing or steering complex systems in cooperation with a variety of other actors

government restructuring – substantial and wide-reaching structural change in public administration and management, usually intended to reflect new public management objectives of efficiency and effectiveness

grants – cash transfers with few if any performance conditions attached, though other requirements may be built into the grant

guidelines – codes or frameworks to guide action, without coercive support

hierarchical analysis – a technique for identifying possible causes of a problem by classifying causes as possible causes, plausible causes, or actionable causes

horizontal consistency – consistency across policy fields, not just within them

horizontal issues – issues that cut across various policy areas

human rights – the recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family

ideas in good currency – broad ideas about public policy that are widely shared without much commentary or debate and that change slowly over time but form the backdrop for policy discussion

impact evaluation – analysis of the actual effect or impact of a program on its intended target, along with unintended consequences

implementation theory – the specific activities and resources that need to be mobilized in connection with each of the links in the program’s causal chain to achieve the desired outcome

incrementalism – decisionmaking that proceeds by small, successive comparisons rather than grand designs, and moves forward in small steps or “increments”

indicators – atypical or routine monitoring that turns up discrepancies or patterns that hint that something is amiss and lead to further development and analysis of the problem definition

innovation networks – networks that bind together public administrators, managers, consultants, and academics to ensure that examples of public sector innovation in program delivery are as widely available as possible

instrument design – the generic term for the selection and calibration of different policy instruments through programming to achieve policy objectives

intangibles – the costs and benefits of a program for which it is difficult to place monetary values

interest group pluralism – a system in which a wide variety of interests succeed in getting themselves heard throughout government

interest group – a voluntary, membership-based organization that lobbies governments on issues of concern to its members

interest intermediation – the process whereby societal interests interact with state institutions

internal consistency – consistency among the three elements of problem definition, goals, and instruments

international standards – either formal or informal standards developed by the international community that are intended to supplement and sometimes override domestic standards

investment – a cash payment that implies a return of some sort, a benefit, or a profit

iron triangle – the stable and cozy relationships among congressional committees, executive agencies (primarily regulatory), and economic interest groups

issue attention cycle – a portrayal of public policy going through cycles of attention, reaction and action, and quietude

issue framing – a way of depicting a policy issue or problem in broad and understandable, if somewhat simplified terms

issue framing – a way of depicting a policy issue or problem in broad, understandable if somewhat simplified terms

issue network – offered as a critique of the “iron triangle” concept in that most policy subsystems were quite fluid and changing, with actors coalescing as necessary around issues, not policy sectors

joined-up government – the UK term for horizontal coordination across government departments and agencies

Kaldor-Hicks criterion – identifies potential Pareto improvements as those that, assuming that net gainers could compensate losers, would leave at least one person better off without anyone else worse off

knowledge utilization – the acceptance by decisionmakers of policy analysis and advice, and implementation through programs

La Relève – the initiative started by the Clerk of Privy Council, Jocelyne Bourgon, during the mid-1990s to address the “quiet crisis” in the federal public service and rebuild motivation and pride

labels – dense words or phrases that convey subtle but powerful meanings

labels – summary words that convey subtle but powerful meanings: “homosexual” versus “gay,” “vagrant” versus “homeless,” “tax” versus “user fee”

legal analysis – looks at public policy through the prism of law: constitutionality, consistency with statute, and the practices of legal convention NEL-PAL-12-0705-001-Sample.indd 34 11/09/12 5:19 PM NEL Chapter 1 Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice 35

legitimate coercion – the application of force backed by law

liberal individualism – insists that equality will best be achieved by treating people as individuals under a system of universally applicable and consistent rules

liberal universalism – the preference to treat individuals according to a universally applicable set of rules, not those tailored to specific group differences

licence – permit to engage in activities that may involve a mix of prohibition, permission, and conditions

loan – cash transfer that requires eventual repayment

lobbying – communicating with public office-holders to influence policy, legislation, or regulations, usually (if by business) in connection with grants, contracts, or other financial benefits

logic model – usually a graphical representation of the links between program inputs, activities, outputs, immediate outcomes, and long-term results

logical analysis – deals with questions of consistency and coherence: Is the policy internally consistent? Is it vertically consistent? Is it horizontally consistent?

Management Accountability Framework (MAF) – a set of 10 principles or measures against which the performance of senior federal public service managers’ performance will be assessed

marginal cost – the additional cost of producing one more unit of a good or service

Memorandum to Cabinet – the policy document outlining the rationale for any proposed bill, which now must state what consultations the cabinet minister has undertaken or plans to undertake

meta-analysis – a technique where evaluators review the existing literature on a specific program, treating each evaluation study as a single case and building statistical conclusions based on these observations

metaphors – in a policy context, words or phrases that convey powerful meanings through an implicit comparison, such as the “Cold War,” “Iron Curtain,” or “social safety net”

metaphor – subtle denotations of one thing in terms of another, as in a is like b

mitigation – actions taken based on a risk assessment to lower those risks and prevent them from happening

moral suasion – the ability to persuade others based on one’s institutional prominence or authority

multiculturalism – a policy of protecting and celebrating the cultural diversity of different groups within a society, and ensuring that there is no discrimination on those grounds

multiple perspective analysis – a technique to review the problem situation from three perspectives: (1) the technical perspective: cost–benefit analysis, econometrics, and systems analysis; (2) the organizational perspective: focus on institutional rules and processes, and following standard operating procedures; and (3) the personal perspective: viewing problems and solutions in terms of individual perceptions and values

national mood – an inchoate, broad, but nonetheless real consensus among the population around some national issue

National Performance Review (U.S.) – a program of public sector reform of the Clinton administration, headed by Vice-President Al Gore, in March 1993, touching on virtually every agency and program in the U.S. federal government

near (policy) beliefs – used in the advocacy coalition approach to designate beliefs about the best policy instruments to achieve certain goals; these beliefs can change in the face of serious evidence

needs assessment – a review of the service and support needs of a particular agency or group

new public management – focus on performance appraisal and efficiency; disaggregating and decentralizing public bureaucracies; the use of market mechanisms and of contracting out to foster competition; financial management; partnerships

Next Steps (U.K.) – the plan in the late 1980s to convert many traditional departments into “departmental executive agencies” that would essentially act as businesses delivering public services

nodality – the generic category of information resources at the disposal of governments

nonlinear policy problems – problems where small changes in initial conditions can have large consequences, where uncertainty is high, and where there are discontinuities in normal events and shared responsibilities for action

normative analysis – measures some aspect of policy against an ethical standard: secular morality, the Bible, the Koran, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, or the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights

opportunity cost – the forgone benefits of doing one thing and not another

Pareto optimality – the criterion of optimization that states that a change is worthwhile if at least one person is made better off while no one else is worse off

partnership – working jointly and cooperatively with others, in some formal arrangement, for the production and delivery of goods and services

performance indicator – some measure of how well a service or activity is doing, either through financial or output measures, or client satisfaction

performance story – reporting of program results in such a way as to highlight both successes and shortcomings, the challenges faced by the organization, and what it might do in the future to improve results

performance – empirical indicator of how well a program or organization is operating with respect to clearly articulated goals

permission – regulatory device that permits a certain activity under specific conditions

planning-programming-budgeting system (PPBS) – encourages departments to state their activities in programmatic terms, that is, in terms of goals and objectives, specific costs associated with programs designed to achieve those goals, and resources devoted to each program

policy analysis – the disciplined application of intellect to public problems

policy argument – an organized set of claims about a policy problem and recommended solutions that include such characteristics as causality, severity, novelty, crisis, instruments, and solutions

policy argument – an organized set of claims about a policy problem and recommended solutions that include such characteristics as causality, severity, novelty, crisis, instruments, and solutions

policy capacity – the institutional ability to conduct policy analysis and implement its results effectively and efficiently

policy communication – any form of communication designed to convey information about policy, explain it, provide an analysis of problem and solution, and ultimately make recommendations that persuade its audience

policy community – the actors in a policy network, presumably those who share at least some common language and conceptual reference points but who may be opponents on the issue

policy consistency – agreement between the different elements of public policy, embracing horizontal, vertical, and internal consistency

policy design – the process of choosing the most appropriate instrument to deal with the policy problem as it has been defined in order to achieve a given policy goal

policy development – the process of shaping policy initiatives, from problem recognition to implementation and evaluation

policy entrepreneurs – actors who shape the public agenda and can quickly and effectively mobilize around a policy issue when they see or sense an opportunity

policy feedback – information about the consequences or impacts of a policy that goes back into its improvement and redesign

policy framework – a guide to a range of related actions and decisions in a given field

policy goals – the objectives to be achieved by a given public policy

policy images – a mixture of empirical information and emotive appeals that explain the issue and justify the public policy response

policy images – a mixture of empirical information and emotive appeals that explain the issue and justify the public policy response

policy instruments – means chosen on how to address the problem and achieve the policy goals

policy issue papers – longer, more detailed and technical analysis of a policy problem, with consideration of options and recommendations (sometimes referred to as “policy papers”)

policy memoranda – shorter version of the policy issue paper, rarely more than 3000 words, often in response to a specific request for background information

policy network – the patterns of relations among members of the policy community

policy paradigm – a broad framework of ideas that combines deep values, second-order preferences about policy approaches, and thirdorder instrumental preferences on policy instruments and their settings

Policy Research Initiative – an initiative directed at developing a sustained demand for policy among a community of collaborating federal departments and the wider research community focused on long-term, research-based, and reflective issues

policy reversal – the changes in key policies during the early 1990s that have altered key social and political systems built up in the postwar period in both the developed and developing world

policy space – the wider field within which a given, single policy operates in relation to others that tackle different elements of the problem

policy statement – defines the problem, sets the goals that are to be achieved, and indicates the instruments or means whereby the problem is to be addressed and the goals achieved

policy studies – the broad range of research literature that is relevant to the study of and reflection upon public policy

policy windows – unpredictable openings in the policy process that create the possibility for influence over the direction and outcome of that process

policy-specific goals – goals related to the broader ones but more directly connected to the programs that give the policy effect

political campaigning – communication and other activities designed to secure partisan benefit and ultimately election

political culture – people’s orientations of support and trust toward the political system

politics of difference – an emphasis on rights, discourse, culture, and group-specific differences as the foundation of politics and policy

postmaterialism – the broad cultural shift around the world but particularly in the West away from material concerns to questions of identity and lifestyle

postmodern condition – term used to describe the amalgam of conditions consisting of the rise of postmaterialism, the increased salience of rights, and the new emphasis on “difference”

post-positivist policy analysis – an approach that places a strong emphasis on the role of ideas and discourse over technical analysis, and is suspicious of rational techniques in that they potentially undermine democratic participation of non-expert citizens

pre-program/post-program design – an evaluation technique that uses time-series data for the period before program implementation and after to draw conclusions about the likely impact of the intervention

problem definition – indicates what the problem or issue is and some of the causal factors behind it

problem recognition – the stage at which there is an emerging sense that there may be a problem that needs attention and further analysis, usually based on indicators or some event that signals an issue

problem structuring – the intellectual process of shaping the problem definition

procedural policy instrument – instrument that alters institutional rules and arrangements to try to induce behaviour

process evaluation – monitors an existing program to assess the effort and organizational resources put into it

program components – typically, the strategies, activities, behaviours, media products, and technologies needed to deliver the program, along with a specification of the intended recipients and delivery situations

program evaluation – an essential part of any reasonable approach to policymaking that assesses, in some sense, how well programs are doing in terms of their stated objectives

program logic – sketches out the assumed causal links that will yield specified outcomes in order to conduct impact evaluation

Program Review – the federal Liberal government’s policy in the mid-1990s of management reform and program-by-program assessment according to six criteria as a means for reducing the deficit and enhancing efficiency

program theory – the hypotheses and explanations about the causal links that tie program inputs to expected program outputs

prohibitions – regulatory device that forbids certain activities under certain conditions

PS2000 – a 1989–93 federal public-sector reform initiative inaugurated in 1989, which had three core objectives: better service, improved personnel management, and flexibility

public interest group – interest groups whose emphasis is on advocacy for “causes” and the public interest rather than economic lobbying

public management – the process of directing the public sector as a whole as well as the specific agencies within it

public policy – a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem or interrelated set of problems

public sector reform – attempts to change management practices and institutional design in the public sector to enhance efficiency and effectiveness

Public Service Modernization Act (PSMA) – federal legislation introduced in 2003 to make human resources management in government departments more flexible and decentralized

public–private partnership – a cooperative venture between the public and private sectors, built on the expertise of each partner, that meets well-defined public needs through the appropriate allocation of resources, risks, and rewards

punctuated equilibrium – a process that simultaneously combines long stable periods of policy consensus followed by bursts of change around new issues and new policy images

quality management – managing programs and services with a high priority placed on quality, performance measures, and reporting

Quality Services Initiative – the late 1990s federal initiative that stresses citizen-centred service delivery

quasi-experimental design – all contrasted or comparing group designs that fall short of the demand for completely random assignment of the groups

race to the bottom – competition among countries for investment by lowering of standards

random assignment – a method used in experimental design where the odds of being in either the experimental or the control group are the same

rational model – a systematic approach to problem solving that lays out the problem, reviews options, and makes recommendations based on the intersection between goals and factual circumstances

rationalism – the characteristic form of knowing in the West that emphasizes empirical knowledge, science, objectivity, and systematic analysis

recognition – regulatory device that uses the government’s capacity to recognize certain qualities or achievements as a “sign of approval”

re-governmentalize – the opposite of agencification – pulling agencies or activities back into the public sector from the private sector

regulation – the generic category of policy instruments that rely on the government’s capacity to command and prohibit

reports on plans and priorities (RPPs) – annual report required from each federal government department and agency about its plans and priorities for the coming fiscal year

re-regulation – a process of developing new regulatory regimes for arenas that had been previously regulated in more traditional formats

results orientation – a management focus on new forms of review, audit, and evaluation based on results

rights talk – a mode of political discourse that emphasizes the salience of individual and group rights

risk management – a management framework that encourages the identification and assessment of risk, and its mitigation or prevention as part of a medium to long-term strategy

risk – probability of an event with negative consequences, key dimensions being level of probability and severity of risk

satisficing – the objective in most human decisionmaking to find a workable rather than a perfect solution to problems

secondary aspects – used in the advocacy coalition approach to designate beliefs about organizational rules or implementation techniques that can change quite easily

secondary legislation – regulations announced under the regulatory powers of a statute and that therefore have the force of law without necessarily being passed by the legislature

sectoral model – a model that vertically integrates advice and delivery within a ministry or department

self-regulation – the delegation of the state regulatory power to a nongovernmental organization or private association

service delivery – procedures and organizational resources devoted to getting services to clients

service fee – fee attached to the provision of some service, such as issuing a passport

shaming – publication of unwelcome information in order to force targets to change their behaviour in order to protect their reputations

sin tax – traditionally, taxes levied on cigarettes and alcohol

single observation design – a method of evaluation that relies on a measure of impact only after the program is introduced

social benefits – the benefits obtained from the point of view of the community of the services provided by government

social capital – the degree to which members of a community trust each other and engage in reciprocal relations based on that trust

social cohesion – a sense of belonging to a community that shares values and a sense of purpose and commitment

social fragmentation – the process of losing social cohesion

social indicators – data that represent important characteristics of society such as crime, literacy, health; contrasted to the usual economic indicators such as inflation and unemployment

social movement – an informal network of organizations and individuals who, on the basis of a collective identity and shared values, engage in political and/or cultural struggle intended to break or expand the boundaries of the existing system, and undertake collective action designed to affect both state and society

static response – a deliberate choice not to intervene, made after an analysis of the problem

strategic governance – the use of the powers and instruments that governments have at their disposal to encourage private-public partnerships, networks, framework agreements, and broad direction for the policy system as a whole

study circles – a consultation technique designed to facilitate broadly based, grassroots decisionmaking at the community level

subgovernment – a generic concept that expresses the idea that policy does not get made in a single “system” but in subsystems that consist of microcosms of all the relevant political and institutional actors

subsidy – cash transfers that are closely calibrated to the costs of engaging in an activity that the government regards favourably

summative evaluation – an evaluation undertaken at the end of a program to gauge its success

sunk cost – costs that have incurred in the past and that are not recoverable

synectics – a technique that relies on the use of analogies to see whether new policy problems have sufficiently similar characteristics to older ones that previous problem definitions and solutions can provide some guidance

tax expenditure – the technique of forgoing certain owed taxes (and hence losing or “spending” tax dollars) in order to subsidize an activity

tax – a compulsory levy that is not generally connected to any specific service and is intended to provide general purpose revenues to the government

think tanks – nongovernmental, sometimes for-profit and sometimes nonprofit, organizations dedicated to research and discussion of policy issues with the wider public and decisionmakers

tipping point – dramatic moment in an epidemic when everything can change; a sudden, unexpected change in what to that point has been a stable system

trade liberalization – the process of lowering trade barriers of every sort such as duties and nontariff barriers, to encourage trade and investment flows

transnational corporations – commercial firms that operate in numerous countries, not simply for the sale of their products, but to organize production itself

transparency – clear accountability, reporting, and publication provisions for the provision of services as well as the decisionmaking process

user charge – the charge levied on a category of person or user of a service, not the service itself

vertical consistency – consistency between the broad policy framework and the specific programs that implement that framework

voluntary code – standards or codes developed by private sector organizations; sometimes known as codes of conduct, codes of practice, voluntary initiatives, guidelines, and non-regulatory agreements

vouchers – “coupons” for stipulated amounts of public financial support attached to a service that may be redeemed under certain conditions


Leslie A. Pal (2014), Beyond Policy Analysis: Public Issue Management in Turbulent Times, 5th Edition, Nelson Higher Education (ISBN-10: 0176507876; ISBN-13: 9780176507879; Paperback, Previous Editions: 2010, 2006, 2002)

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified 10 April 2017.