Quiz 1007.05 – Interests, Stakeholders, and Perspectives on Change

… an Atlas quiz for Toronto PPG1007 Strategic Implementation

Concept comprehension questions on
Top 120 + 80 Concepts for PPG1007

Note: All 12 quizzes for Toronto PPG1007 Strategic Implementation are available at Concept Comprehension Quizzes for PPG1007 Strategic Implementation.

CCQ1007.05.01. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Leonard’s note on public sector strategy-building choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Herman Leonard says one must be clear about the unit of analysis, i.e., the contemplated or ongoing action, program, initiative, or venture.

b. Leonard says one must be clear about the actor or decision-maker from whose perspective we are carrying out the analysis, since the analysis may differ depending on whose strategy we are trying to build.

c. Leonard says that the challenge is not simply to understand where a given program may be in the value-capacity-support domain but to determine a set of actions and interventions that will reliably improve the strategic setting of the program.

d. Leonard notes that the set of actions designed to create these improvements is the strategy – a coordinated series of actions – derived from the strategic analysis carried out through applying the analytical framework as a starting point in the analysis.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.05.02. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the term interests choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In policy design and implementation, the only interest one needs to consider is the public interest.

b. Some writers, including Theodore Benditt, take the concept of interests to be the central notion in politics.

c. Benditt’s enumeration of accounts of interests in political theory includes feelings or attitudes, and attitudes shared by groups of people.

d. Benditt’s enumeration of accounts of interests in political theory includes wants and claims or demands, as well as changes that affect one advantageously or disadvantageously.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.05.03. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the term stakeholders choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A stakeholder is anybody who can affect or is affected by an organization, strategy or project.

b. An objective policy analyst should minimize contact with stakeholders and politely ignore their representations since these would be distort the process of developing recommendations on the basis of sound theory and documented evidence.

c. Stakeholders are often crucial to the success of a government initiative.

d. Useful techniques for indentifying stakeholders include brainstorming, and consulting organization charts and directories.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.05.04. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the term endowment effect choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The endowment effect is the long-term influence that wealthy philanthropist can have on public policy.

b. The endowment effect is a bias that occurs when we overvalue a good that we own, regardless of its objective market value.

c. The endowment effect is an illustration of the status quo bias and can be explained by loss aversion.

d. People place a greater value on things once they have established ownership, which is especially true for goods that wouldn’t normally be bought or sold on the market, usually items with symbolic, experiential, or emotional significance.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.05.05. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the term issue framing choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Issue framing is the exercize of specifying the matters that are inside the area of consideration and those that are outside.

b. Issue framing is a way of depicting a policy issue or problem in broad and understandable, if somewhat simplified terms.

c. The first part of issue framing has to do with logical elements that make up an argument or claim

d. The second part of issue framing has to do with policy communications and uses powerful rhetorical tools such as metaphors and labels.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.05.06. Among the statements a-d pertaining to consulting stakeholders and engaging citizens, choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Consultations and citizen engagement can be seen as empty theatrics where interest groups rant predictably while decisionmakers watch the clock, waiting for it all to be over so that they can then go and make the decisions they were going to make anyway.

b. Policymakers genuinely believe that consultation in policy design and partnership in policy delivery are important aspects of their jobs, partly because some form of consultation with the public is increasingly mandated as an aspect of public policy development.

c. The shift to “engagement” from “consultation” seems to have occurred, in part, because of the continued lack of trust that citizens have toward government and dissatisfaction with the connotations of consultation – a process that suggests a fairly passive communication of views from stakeholders to government officials who will ultimately make the key decisions.

d. To the extent that governments at all levels feel the need to introduce unpopular policies, particularly cuts to services and social protection, most will avoid “citizen engagement” since they know perfectly well what the outcome will be – howls of pain and outrage.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.05.07. Among the statements a-d pertaining to policy window choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Policy windows are defined as unpredictable openings in the policy process that create the possibility for influence over the direction and outcome of that process.

b. A great deal of the agenda-setting process is contingent on unpredictable factors and personalities – i.e., to the opening of policy windows.

c. Windows sometimes open regularly but who jumps through successfully or not is still a matter of chance and skill.

d. A policy window is a mixture of empirical information and emotive appeals that explain the issue and justify the public policy response.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.05.08. Among the statements a-d pertaining to open policy making choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Open policy making is about allowing the public and journalists to observe the meetings where government decisions are taken.

b. Open policy making is about developing and delivering policy in a fast-paced and increasingly networked and digital world.

c. Open policy making uses collaborative approaches in the policy making process, so that policy is informed by a broad range of input and expertise and meets user needs.

d. Open policy making includes testing and iteratively improving policy to meet complex, changing user needs and making sure it can be successfully implemented.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.05.09. Among the statements a-d pertaining to rational decision making model choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The steps in the rational model are choosing models, identifying needs, aligning objectives with needs, and selecting options.

b. The rational model has embedded within it a strong concern with efficiency.

c. Pure rationality in decisionmaking is not possible and people have to make decisions under various constraints.

d. Making decisions rationally is not the same as making reasonable decisions – a reasonable or good decision is defined less by the process that produced it than by its appropriateness as a solution to the initial problem.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.05.10. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Lindblom’s incrementalism and muddling through choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Charles Lindblom argued that the unforgiving strictures of rational decisionmaking were so unrealistic in terms of the cognitive and political situation faced by most decisionmakers that they made choices by “muddling through.”

b. Lindblom argued that in the real world of politics and administration there are multiple decisionmakers with conflicting perspectives and priorities.

c. Lindblom argued that policymaking is a struggle over the criteria of social classification, the boundaries of problem categories, and the intersubjective interpretation of common experiences.

d. Lindblom argued that decisions get made on the basis of successive limited comparisons.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified on 5 November 2017.

Image: Peace and Political Buttons from TieDyes.com, at http://apgovernment2010.yolasite.com/ch1.php, accessed 26 March 2017.