Quiz 1007.01 – The Study of Policy Analysis and Implementation

… an Atlas quiz for Toronto PPG1007 Strategic Implementation

Concept comprehension questions on
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Note: All 12 quizzes for Toronto PPG1007 Strategic Implementation are available at Concept Comprehension Quizzes for PPG1007 Strategic Implementation.

CCQ1007.01.01. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the term public policy choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public policy can be defined as a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem or interrelated set of problems.

b. Public policy can be defined as systematically using the state to affect peoples’ lives.

c. Public policy can be generally defined as a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives.

d. Successful public policy depends on the development and use of a sound evidence base; the understanding and managing the political context; and planning from the outset for how the policy will be delivered.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.01.02. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the term trade-off choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. When choices are made (collectively or by an individual) to accept having less of one thing in order to get more of something else, the results are called trade-offs.

b. A student faced with the choice of spending Saturday studying for a Microeconomics exam or hiking in Toronto’s ravines makes a trade-off of hiking time for study time in deciding how many hours to study and how many to spend hiking.

c. Evaluating trade-offs, when done carefully and systematically, involves comparing the costs and benefits of each of the available alternatives with each other.

d. The concept of trade-offs are generally applied to consumer choices and not to choices made by producers.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.01.03. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the term opportunity cost choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Opportunity cost as the cost of an alternative that must be foregone in order to pursue a certain action.

b. Opportunity cost is the value of the next highest use.

c. The opportunity cost of earning an MPP degree includes the cost of room and board while attending university.

d. The opportunity cost of something includes not only the money spent in buying (or doing) the something, but also the economic benefits that you did without because you bought (or did) that particular something and thus can no longer buy (or do) something else.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.01.04. Among the statements a-d pertaining to principal-agent problem choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The principal-agent problem is what develops when a principal creates an environment in which an agent’s incentives don’t align with its own.

b. Much of the principal-agent problem has to do with information asymmetry and incentives.

c. The onus is on the agent to create incentives for the principal to ensure they act as the agent wants.

d. An example of the principle-agent problem is when the agent knows more than the typical principle, and the agent has the ability to charge at their own discretion.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.01.05. Among the statements a-d pertaining to public choice theory choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public choice transfers the rational actor model of economic theory to the realm of politics.

b. Public choice theory tries to determine the behavioural choice of the public if the public behaved as a rational actor.

c. Public choice, like the economic model of rational behavior on which it rests, assumes that people are guided chiefly by their own self-interests.

d. Public choice theory is the application of the theories and methods of economics to the analysis of political behavior.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.01.06. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Allison’s three models of government action choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In his classic 1969 article, Conceptual models and the Cuban Missile Crisis, Graham Allison set out three models or lenses for analyzing government action.

b. Model 1 suggests that the state acts as a unitary rational actor to make decisions.

c. Model 2 suggests that the sub-units of the state act according to pre-determined procedures to produce an output and the government can only dictate policy options that are already in the standard operating procedures.

d. Model 3 suggests that those in charge of various state responsibilities make predictable arguments based on their present position with policy outcomes being the result of negotiations among these leaders.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.01.07. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Downs’ typology of officials choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In his classic 1964 article, Inside Bureaucracy, Anthony Downs sets out five types of government officials.

b. Downs’ five types of government officials include climbers, conservers, and advocates.

c. Downs’ five types of government officials include zealots and statesmen.

d. Downs suggested three key determinants of an official’s type: psychological predispositions; the nature of the position occupied by the official; and the probability that an official actually attain the goals associated with the particular type toward which he is psychologically inclined.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.01.08. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Pressman and Wildavsky’s implementation model choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Pressman-Wildavsky implementation model features a chain of statistically independent nodes or clearance points with an attached probability.

b. The Pressman-Wildavsky model explains why success in well-designed implementation plans is better than 80 percent.

c. The Pressman-Wildavsky model suggests that if the probability of agreement is 80 percent at each of 30 decision points involving a total of 70 clearances, then the chances of completion are one in a million.

d. Critics of the Pressman-Wildavsky model point out that clearance points are not always independent and might be packaged or bundled in ways so that one clearance ripples through several others.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.01.09. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Bardach’s implementation game choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Bardach uses the notion of games as a way of understanding the essentially defensive nature of implementation.

b. Bardach’s strategies include avoiding implementation designs that rely on complex management systems, large organizations, and multiple clearances.

c. Bardach’s strategies include avoiding implementation designs that work through the market because the dynamics of the public and private spheres are fundamentally at odds.

d. Bardach’s strategies include engaging in scenario-writing to work out different possible consequences of a string of actions and interactions.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ1007.01.10. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Bardach’s eightfold path to more effective problem solving choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Bardach’s first step is to figure out what your role is in the decision-making structure for the problem at hand.

b. Bardach’s second step is to assemble some evidence recognizing that a substantial portion of the time on a policy analysis is needed for reading documents, hunting in libraries, poring over studies and statistics, interviewing people, traveling to interviews, and waiting for appointments.

c. Bardach’s third step is to construct the alternatives, that is, the “policy options,” or “alternative courses of action,” or “alternative strategies of intervention to solve or mitigate the problem.”

d. Bardach’s seventh step is to “decide!” as a check on how well you have done your work up to this point, because, even though you personally may not be the decision maker, unless you can convince yourself of the plausibility of some course of action, you probably won’t be able to convince your client – and rightly so.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified on 31 October 2017.

Image: Local Government Utopia, at https://localgovernmentutopia.com/tag/books/, accessed 21 March 2017.