Atlas109 Leadership and Communication

… one of the core Atlas Courses

LeadershipAndCommunicationAtlas course syllabus

This Atlas course syllabus combines the 9 normed topics in Leadership Skills and the 3 normed topics in Communications Skills deemed to be core learning requirements for graduates of MPP and MPA programs.

Warning to readers! This is a “moderately long” web page. Below the topic and concept tables you will find the week-by-week readings and videos associated with the estimated 120 hours of study required by an MPP or MPA student to master the 12 core topics. On 16 May 2016 this web page had 6,560 words, which takes 25 pages in standard Word format with Calibri 11-point font.

The sequence of 12 core normed topics is designed to familiarize students with the academic and popular literature on leadership, and to illustrate how different leadership styles are best suited to different challenges. The course highlights the importance in leadership and communication of recognizing how people’s values and psychological types differ. It covers the basic elements of developing a strategy, identifying and building resources, and mobilizing potential stakeholders. The course introduces students to the theory and techniques of interacting with others, working in teams, and negotiation. The three topics on communication skills cover the application of the principles of rhetoric and narrative to the arts of persuasion, speaking and writing.

Many of the topics and concepts in these two subjects can be considered skills (see Skills and Tacit Knowledge) and are named in the gerundial form (e.g., Taking Responsibility) or as a noun that could be preceded by the gerunds “practising” (e.g., Respectfulness) or “utilizing” (e.g., Story Arc). Concept-level skills are also referred to as effective practices and in the table below are italicized. The topics are listed in the order they could be taught and concepts are listed in alphabetic order with effective practices preceding the other concepts associated with the topic.

Learning outcomes

On successful completion of this course students will have the skills and knowledge to be able to analyze public management problems by appropriately utilizing the theories and principles in the normed topics and concepts noted below.

Normed topics

The topics are normed in having a volume of content capable of being taught in one course-week of instruction – nominally 3 hours of in-class work and 7 hours of outside-class reading.

  1. The Study of Leadership and Communication
  2. Recognizing Values
  3. Diagnosing
  4. Building Resources
  5. Strategizing
  6. Handling Complexity
  7. Negotiating
  8. Managing Oneself
  9. Working in Organizations
  10. Persuading
  11. Speaking to Persuade
  12. Writing to Persuade

Like other normed topics on the Atlas, each of these has a topic description, links to core concepts relevant to the topic, learning outcomes, a reading list drawn from available course syllabi, and a series of assessment questions.

Concepts to be learned
(listed alphabetically under topics with effective practices in italics)

The Study of Leadership and Communication

Autocratic Leadership

Civil Service Leadership Statement

Ganz’s Pedagogy as Practice

Heifetz’s Adaptive Work

Kouzes and Posner’s Leadership Model

Lewin’s 3 Leadership Styles

Laissez-Faire Leadership

Participative Leadership

Pfeffer’s Management BS Critique

Situational Theory of Leadership

Skills and Tacit Knowledge

Trait Theory of Leadership

Trust

Williams’ Real vs Counterfeit Leadership

Work Avoidance Mechanisms

Recognizing Values

Concept Creep

Haidt’s 6 Innate Moral Foundations

Intrinsic Motivation

Motivation

Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator (MBTI)

Diagnosing

Determining the Nature of the Leadership Challenge

Determining Who Is Us (Our People)

Engaging the Issue (Getting on the Dance Floor)

Framing the Problem

Identifying Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT)

Taking a Detached (Balcony) Perspective

Building Resources

Conducting a Meeting

Creating a Coalition

Creating a Team

Gaining Standing

Identifying Allies

Meeting in Person

Networking

Strategizing

Countering Opposition

Creating Smart Objectives

Developing an Action Plan

Developing Mission and Vision Statements

Developing Successful Strategies

VMOSA – Vision, Mission, Objectives, Strategies, and Action Plans

Leonard’s Note on Public Sector Strategy-Building

Strategy

Handling Complexity

Dealing with Ambiguity

Dealing with Uncertainty

Determining Sources of Complexity

Practicing Integrative Thinking

Recognizing Obliquity

Complexity

Negotiating

Action-Forcing Mechanisms

Advice for Women Negotiators

BATNA – Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement

Dealing with Difficult People

Fisher and Ury’s Four Principles of Negotiation

Competitive Bargaining vs. Cooperative Problem Solving

Negotiation

Win-Win, Win-Lose, and Lose-Lose Situations

ZOPA – Zone of Possible Agreement

Managing Oneself

Activating Ambition

Becoming Self-aware

Developing Resilience

Finding Balance

Having Fun

Managing Stress

Managing Time 

Overcoming Procrastination

Taking Responsibility

Working in Organizations

Briefing and Minimizing Surprises

Clearing

Deadlining

Dependability

Friendliness

Honesty

Orienting

Punctuality

Resourcefulness

Respectfulness

Persuading

Active Audience

Authority and Credibility

Analogies and Metaphors

Conformity, Similarity, and Social Proof

Consistency and Commitment

Contrast

Counter-intuitive Facts and Arguments

Empathy and Listening

Humour

Knowing the Audience

Knowing the Context

Liking

Personalizing

Simplicity and Clarity

Salience

Scarcity

Storytelling

Reciprocity

Repetition

Types of Attitude Change

Aristotle’s 3 Rhetorical Appeals – Legos, Ethos, and Pathos

Cialdini’s 6 Principles of Persuasion Science

Narrative Theory

Orren’s 20 Principles of Persuasion

Primers for Polemicists – Comparing Rules from Harries and Alinsky

Persuasion

Rhetoric

Speaking to Persuade

Beginning with a Grabber

Body Language and Posture

Controlling Uptalk and Like

Eliminating Filler Words

Elevator Pitch

Ending Memorably

Eye Contact

Ladder of Abstraction

Practicing the Presentation

Pre-speech Warm Ups

Reading a Speech

Speech Pauses

Story Arc

Voice Projection and Volume

Writing to Persuade

Basic Op-Ed Structure

Behn’s Craft of Memo Writing

Ledes and News Hooks

Lede and Subhead 

Style Guides

Using Plain Language

Writing a Briefing Note

Writing a Press Release

Writing a Summary

Benchmark course syllabi drawn upon for readings

Albany PAD614 Managerial Leadership in the Public Sector

American PUAD650 Leadership for a Changing Workplace

Harvard DPI801 The Arts of Communication

Harvard MLD110 Strategic Management for Public Purposes

Harvard MLD115 Management Matters – Leadership, Strategy and Getting Things Done

Harvard MLD201 Exercising Leadership – The Politics of Change

Harvard MLD220M Fundamentals of Negotiation Analysis

Harvard MLD342 Persuasion – The Science and Art of Effective Influence

Harvard MLD355M Public Narrative – Self, Us, Now

Harvard MLD356M Public Narrative – Conflict, Continuity, Change

Michigan PP779 Presentation Skills

Toronto PPG2014 Leading Change and Getting Things Done

UCLA PP209 Management in the 21st Century

Recommended readings

Week 1: The Study of Leadership and Communication

Matthew Stewart, The Management Myth – Most of management theory is inane, writes our correspondent, the founder of a consulting firm, The Atlantic, June 2006, at http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2006/06/the-management-myth/304883/, accessed 30 December 2015.

Amazon Canada’s “Bestsellers in Leadership” list at http://www.amazon.ca/Bestsellers-Books-%20Leadership/zgbs/books/952286/ref=zg_bs_nav_b_4_952280, accessed 30 December 2015.

Ganz3

Click for Lecture

Leading Change: Story, Strategy, and Structure – An evening with Marshall Ganz, 20 November 2014, Global Health Program and School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Toronto, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IDo0r3KuXA, accessed 9 January 2016.

Marshall Ganz and Emily Lin. (2011). Learning to Lead: Pedagogy in Practice
Chapter 22 in the Handbook for Teaching Leadership. Ed. Nitin Nohria, Rakesh Khurana and Scott Snook. (SAGE Publications), p.353-367, at http://marshallganz.usmblogs.com/files/2012/08/Chapter-8-Ganz-Lin1.pdf, accessed 6 January 2016.

BBC Imagine: Who’s Afraid of Machiavelli (60-minute documentary posted to YouTube on 22 June 2014, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fphTuyJXTcQ, accessed 30 December 2015. (Interested readers can view a scanned pdf of a 1905 edition from University of Toronto’s Robarts Library at https://archive.org/details/machiavelli00machuoft, accessed 30 December 2015.)

The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli – Animated Book Review, a wry 10-minute video published on YouTube on 22 June 2015 by FightMediocrity, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SSV6mwPfTI, accessed 31 December 2015.

Robert Greene, The 48 Laws of Power, Preface and Table of Contents. Available at “Look Inside” at http://www.amazon.ca/gp/product/B0024CEZR6/ref=dp-kindle-redirect?ie=UTF8&btkr=1, accessed 30 December 2015. See also the two Animated Book Reviews by FightMediocrity on YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kru-CkgDLpk and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKvMvX67ik4, accessed 30 December 2015.

The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership® Model online at http://www.leadershipchallenge.com/About-section-Our-Approach.aspx, accessed 30 December 2015.

Claudio Feser, Fernanda Mayol, and Ramesh Srinivasan, Decoding leadership: What really matters, McKinsey Quarterly, January 2015, at http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/leading_in_the_21st_century/decoding_leadership_what_really_matters?cid=other-eml-ttn-mip-mck-oth-1512, accessed 6 January 2016.

Kotter, J. P. (1990). What Leaders Really Do. Harvard Business Review

Kotter, J. P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73(2), 59-67.

Heifetz, R. A., & Laurie, D. L. (1997). The work of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 75, 124-134.

Heifetz, R. A. and Linsky, M. (2002). A Survival Guide for Leaders, Harvard Business Review.

Heifetz, R. A. (2010). Adaptive Work, Journal of the Kansas Leadership Center, at https://www.emporia.edu/dotAsset/cc6c29e4-0475-48fd-b9ec-55619cc49bdd.pdf, accessed 5 January 2016.

Goffee, R. and Jones, G. (2000). Why Should Anyone Be Led By You? Harvard Business Review 78: 63-70.

Goffee, R. and Jones, G. (2010). What Makes a Leader. Business Strategy Review. 3rd Quarter: p64-68.

Dean Williams, Real Leadership, all of Chapter 1 (“Odin, Enron, and the Apes”), pp.1-30, and pp. 31-37 from Chapter 2 (“Diagnostic Work”).

Goffee, Rob and Jones, Gareth. 2005. Managing Authenticity: The Paradox of Great Leadership, Harvard Business Review, December 2005, at https://hbr.org/2005/12/managing-authenticity-the-paradox-of-great-leadership, accessed 31 December 2015.

Bennis, W. and Thomas, R. J. 2002. “Crucibles of Leadership.” Harvard Business Review, p97-113, at https://hbr.org/2002/09/crucibles-of-leadership, accessed 30 December 2015.

Cherry, K. A. (2006). Leadership styles. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/leadstyles.htm, accessed 30 December 2015.

Cherry, K. A. (2014). What Is the Situational Theory of Leadership? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/fl/What-Is-the-Situational-Theory-of-Leadership.htm, accessed 31 December 2015.

Week 2: Recognizing Values

Cherry, K. A. (2014). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator – An Overview of the MBTI at http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologicaltesting/a/myers-briggs-type-indicator.htm, accessed 31 December 2015.

Center for Applications of Psychological Type. “MBTI Overview.” http://www.capt.org/mbti-assessment/mbti-overview.htm

Type Logic. “Frequently Asked Questions.” http://typelogic.com/faq.html

Moffa, Michael. “A Critique of The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).” http://www.recruiter.com/i/critique-of-the-myers-briggs-type-indicator-critique/

HumanMetrics. “Jung Typology Test.” http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/jtypes2.asp

Haidt, Jonathan. 2012. The Righteous Mind: Why good people are divided by politics and religion. Random House, Toronto. Introduction and Part II.

Haidt, Jonathan. 2012. “Religion, evolution, and the ecstasy of self-transcendence.” http://www.ted.com/talks/jonathan_haidt_humanity_s_stairway_to_self_transcendence.html

Haidt, Jonathan. “Moral Foundations Questionnaire.” http://www.moralfoundations.org/

Cherry, K. A. (2015). What is Motivation? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm, accessed 31 December 2015.

Daniel Pink, The Puzzle of Motivation (Ted Talk), at http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_pink_on_motivation?language=en, accessed 29 December 2015.

Helen Riess, The Power of Empathy, TEDx Talk, at http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/The-power-of-empathy-Helen-Ries;search%3Ahelen%20riess, accessed 28 December 2015.

Bob Behn, On the value of giving people an opportunity to earn An Adrenaline Rush, Bob Behn’s Public Management Report, Vol. 2, No. 6, February 205, at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/thebehnreport/February2005.pdf, accessed 1 January 2016.

Bob Behn, On the value of setting Stretch Targets, Bob Behn’s Public Management Report, Vol. 10, No. 4, December 2011, at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/thebehnreport/All%20Issues/December2011.pdf, accessed 31 December 2015.

Bob Behn, On why public executives need to remember that Leadership Is a “Generative” Activity, Bob Behn’s Public Management Report, Vol. 6, No. 11, July 2009, at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/thebehnreport/July2009.pdf, accessed 31 December 2015.

Bob Behn, On why public managers need to practice Management Noir, Bob Behn’s Public Management Report, Vol 4, No. 3, November 2006, at http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/thebehnreport/November2006.pdf, accessed 31 December 2015.

Week 3: Diagnosing

Chapter 2 in Williams, Dean, Real Leadership – Helping People and Organizations Face Their Toughest Challenges, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2005.

Marshall Ganz (2010), Leading Change – Leadership, Organization, and Social Movements, Excerpted from Chapter 19 in Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice: A Harvard Business School Centennial Colloquium, Edited by Nitin Nohria and Rakesh Khurana, Harvard Business Press, Boston, Massachusetts, at http://marshallganz.usmblogs.com/files/2012/08/Chapter-19-Leading-Change-Leadership-Organization-and-Social-Movements.pdf, accessed 6 March 2016.

Ronald Heifetz and Marty Linsky (2002), A Survival Guide for Leaders, Harvard Business Review, June 2002, at Wikipedia, at https://hbr.org/2002/06/a-survival-guide-for-leaders/ar/1, accessed 6 March 2016.

Catherine Smith, Framing the Problem – Purposes and Tasks for defining a policy problem, Public Interest Writing, East Carolina University, at http://core.ecu.edu/engl/smithcath/ppolicy_book/frame/tasks.htm, accessed 6 March 2016.

Wikipedia, at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SWOT_analysis, accessed 6 March 2016.

Val Renault, SWOT Analysis: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, Community Tool Box, at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/assessment/assessing-community-needs-and-resources/swot-analysis/main, accessed 6 March 2016.

Week 4: Building Resources

Marshall Ganz (2011). Public Narrative, Collective Action, and Power, Chapter 18 in Accountability Through Public Opinion: From Inertia to Public Action, Edited by Sina Odugbemi and Taeku Lee (Washington, DC: The World Bank), p. 273-289, at http://marshallganz.usmblogs.com/files/2012/08/Public-Narrative-Collective-Action-and-Power.pdf, accessed 6 January 2016.

Marcia J. Simmering, Meeting Management, Reference for Business, at http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Mar-No/Meeting-Management.html, accessed 4 March 2016.

Gillian Kaye, Conducting Effective Meetings, Community Tool Box, at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/leadership/group-facilitation/main, accessed 4 March 2016.

Boyd Childress, revised by Wendy Mason, Coalition Building, Encyclopedia of Management, at http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Bun-Comp/Coalition-Building.html, accessed 2 March 2016.

Phil Rabinowitz, Coalition Building I – Starting a Coalition, Community Toolbox, at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/assessment/promotion-strategies/start-a-coaltion/main, accessed 2 March 2016.

Community Tool Box (University of Kansas), Some Lessons Learned on Community Organization and Change, at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/overview/model-for-community-change-and-improvement/lessons-learned/main, accessed 2 January 2016.

Community Tool Box (University of Kansas), Databases of Best Practices, at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/databases-best-practices, accessed 2 January 2016.

Stephanie Newell and Hal Kirkwood, Teams, Encyclopedia of Business, at http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Str-The/Teams.html, accessed 2 March 2016.

Phil Rabinowitz, Building Teams – Broadening the Base for Leadership, Community Toolbox, at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/leadership/leadership-ideas/team-building/main, accessed 2 March 2016.

Ed Wadud, Recognizing Allies, Community Toolbox, at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/advocacy/advocacy-principles/recognize-allies/main, accessed 29 February 2016.

Rene Shimada Siegel, 5 Reasons You Need to Meet in Person, My clients are just like yours: They want to Skype, email and text. But here’s why you still need face time, Inc., 29 February 2012, at http://www.inc.com/rene-siegel/five-reasons-you-need-to-meet-in-person.html, accessed 3 March 2016.

Bill Berkowitz, Making Personal Contact with Potential Participants, Community Tool Box, at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/participation/encouraging-involvement/participant-contact/main, accessed 3 March 2016.

Jonathan in General, 10 Tips for Effective Networking, Paid to Exist, at https://paidtoexist.com/10-tips-for-effective-networking/, accessed 4 March 2016.

Amy Fontinelle, Four Career Networking Tips that Work, Forbes, at http://www.forbes.com/2010/05/25/career-networking-tips-personal-finance-network.html, accessed 4 March 2016.

John E. Kobara and Melinda Smith, M.A., Job Networking Tips – How to Find the Right Job by Building Relationships, HelpGuide.Org, at http://www.helpguide.org/articles/work-career/job-networking-tips.htm, accessed 4 March 2016.

Week 5: Strategizing

Leonard, H. B. (2002). A Short Note on Public Sector Strategy-Building, uploaded to the Atlas on 28 December 2015 at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Leonard-Note-on-Strategy-2002.pdf.

Michael Porter, What is Strategy? Lecture at the University of North Carolina, November 3, 2012, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KvYwKM5bY0s, accessed 31 December 2015.

Economist, November 2, 2013. Strategies too often fail because more is expected of them than they can deliver, at http://www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21588834-strategies-too-often-fail-because-more-expected-them-they-can-deliver-why, accessed 31 December 2015.

Michael Porter, What is Strategy, Harvard Business Review, November-December 1996, reprint 96608, at https://hbr.org/1996/11/what-is-strategy, accessed 28 December 2015.

Abramson et al. (2008). Eight Essential Tools for Achieving Your Goals. Washington D.C.: IBM Center for the Business of Government, at http://www.businessofgovernment.org/sites/default/files/forum_operatorsmanual_fall08_1.pdf, accessed 31 December 2015.

Rey, F. John. (2015). Key Performance Indicators (KPI) – How an organization defines and measures progress toward its goals, at http://management.about.com/cs/generalmanagement/a/keyperfindic.htm, accessed 31 December 2015.

Robert Kaplan and David Norton, Using the Balanced Scorecard as Strategic Management System, Best of HBR, 1996.

Robert S. Kaplan, Conceptual Foundations of the Balanced Scorecard, Working Paper, 2010, at http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Publication%20Files/10-074.pdf, accessed 31 December 2015.

Christopher Meyer, How the right measures help teams excel, Harvard Business Review, May-June 1994, at https://hbr.org/1994/05/how-the-right-measures-help-teams-excel, accessed 25 December 2015.

Robert Kaplan and David Norton, Integrating Strategy Planning and Operational Execution: A Six-Stage System, Harvard Business Review, 1 May 2008, HBSP reprint B0805A, at https://hbr.org/product/integrating-strategy-planning-and-operational-exec/an/B0805A-PDF-ENG, accessed 28 December 2015.

Bob Behn, On why all public officials need to remember that for every outcome There Is Never A Single Cause, Bob Behn’s Public Management Report, Vol. 10, No. 9, May 2013 at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/thebehnreport/All%20Issues/May2013.pdf, accessed 31 December 2015.

Bob Behn, On why all public executives need to think if they are to Avoid Being Caught in the KPI Quagmire, Bob Behn’s Public Management Report, Vol. 12, No. 3, November 2014, at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/thebehnreport/All%20Issues/BehnReport%202014Nov.pdf, accessed 31 December 2015.

Bob Behn, On why every public executive needs to be Both a Hedgehog and a Fox, Bob Behn’s Public Management Report, Vol. 11, No. 11, July, 2014, at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/thebehnreport/All%20Issues/BehnReport%202014Jul.pdf, accessed 31 December 2015.

Week 6: Handling Complexity

Lovegrove, N and Thomas, M. “Triple Strength Leadership.” Harvard Business Review, September 2013, at https://hbr.org/2013/09/triple-strength-leadership/ar/1, accessed 1 January 206.

Bob Behn, On why all public officials need to accept (if only grudgingly) that There is No Silver Bullet, Bob Behn’s Public Management Report, Vol. 13, No. 2, October 2015, at http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/thebehnreport/All%20Issues/BehnReport%202015-10%20Oct.pdf, accessed 31 December 2015.

Richard Straub, Why Managers Haven’t Embraced Complexity, Harvard Business Review, 6 May 2015, at https://hbr.org/2013/05/why-managers-havent-embraced-c, accessed 31 December 2015.

John Kay, Obliquity: How Complex Goals Are Best Achieved Indirectly, TEDx Talk, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_BoAtYL3OWU, accessed 31 December 2015.

John Kay on Obliquity, banking and money, podcast at Frisby’s Bulls And Bears, http://commoditywatch.podbean.com/2013/03/15/john-kay-on-obliquity-banking-and-money/, accessed 31 December2015.

Needham, Catherine, and Catherine Mangan. 2014. The 21st century public servant. Birmingham: Public Service Academy, University of Birmingham. Retrieved from: http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/Documents/college-social-sciences/public-service-academy/21-century-report-28-10-14.pdf, accessed 31 December 2015.

Week 7: Negotiating

Fisher & Ury: Getting to Yes: Chapter 1 (Roger Fisher and William Ury, Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In, (New York: Penguin Books, 1983, Book Summary from University of Colorado at http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/example/fish7513.htm, accessed 25 December 2015).

Leigh Thompson, Videos – Negotiating Tactics 101, Kellog School of Management, Northwestern University, at http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/news_articles/2014/08012014-negotiation-tactics-101.aspx, accessed 25 December 2015.

Harvard Law School, Program on Negotiation Daily Blog, at http://www.pon.harvard.edu/blog/.

Harvard Law School, How to Improve Negotiation Skills – Win-Win Negotiation Strategies from the Pros, at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Harvard-Law-School-Improving_Negotiation_Skills.pdf,  a free download available from http://www.pon.harvard.edu/, accessed 15 October 2013.

Harvard Law School, BATNA Basics – Boost Your Power at the Bargaining Table, at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/BATNA-Basics-Harvard-Law-School-2015.pdf, a free download available from http://www.pon.harvard.edu/, accessed 9 January 2016.

Mark Young, Sharks, Saints, and Samurai: The Power of Ethics in Negotiations, Negotiation Journal, Vol. 24, No. 2, April 2008.

James Sebenius, What Can We Learn from Great Negotiations? Negotiation Journal, Vol. 27, No. 2, April 2011.

Susan Brodt & Marla Tuchinsky (March 2000), Working Together but in Opposition: An Examination of the “Good-Cop/Bad-Cop” Negotiating Team Tactic, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 81(2):155–177 (Science Direct link at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749597899928790, accessed 25 December 2015).

G. Richard Shell, When is it legal to lie in negotiation? HBR Case Study, at https://hbr.org/product/when-is-it-legal-to-lie-in-negotiations/an/SMR003-PDF-ENG, accessed 25 December 2015.

Deepak Malhotra, Smart alternatives to lying, Harvard Business Review, July 2004, at https://hbr.org/product/smart-alternatives-to-lying-in-negotiation/an/N0405C-PDF-ENG, accessed 25 December 2015.

James Sebenius and David Lax, Three Ethical Issues in Negotiation, Negotiation Journal 2, no. 4 (October 1986): 363–370.

Week 8: Managing Oneself

Gaurav Sharma, 10 July 2015, Book review: HBR’s 10 Must Reads – On Managing Yourself, LinkedIn Pulse, at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/book-review-hbrs-10-must-reads-managing-yourself-gaurav-sharma, accessed 17 February 2016.

Nathaniel Foote, Russell Eisenstat, and Tobias Fredberg (2011), The Higher-Ambition Leader, Harvard Business Review, September, 2011, at https://hbr.org/2011/09/the-higher-ambition-leader, accessed 21 February 2016.

Sylvia Hewlett and Melinda Marshall (2011), Does Female Ambition Require Sacrifice? at https://hbr.org/2011/02/does-female-ambition-require-a, accessed 21 February 2016.

Orit Gadiesh and Julie Coffman (2015), Companies Drain Women’s Ambition After Only 2 Years, Harvard Business Review, 18 May 2015, at https://hbr.org/2015/05/companies-drain-womens-ambition-after-only-2-years, accessed 21 February 2016.

Sheryl Sandberg (2010), Why we have to few women leaders, TED Talk (with almost 6 million views), at http://www.ted.com/talks/sheryl_sandberg_why_we_have_too_few_women_leaders, accessed 21 February 2016.

Anthony K Tjan (2012), How Leaders Become Self-Aware, Harvard Business Review, 19 July 2012, at https://hbr.org/2012/07/how-leaders-become-self-aware/, accessed 21 February 2016.

The MindTools Editorial Team, Developing Resilience – Overcoming and Growing From Setbacks, at https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/resilience.htm, accessed 23 February 2016.

Workplace Mental Health Promotion, A How-To Guide, Work-Life Balance, at http://wmhp.cmhaontario.ca/workplace-mental-health-core-concepts-issues/issues-in-the-workplace-that-affect-employee-mental-health/work-life-balance, accessed 21 February 2016.

Canadian Mental Health Association, Work-Life Balance Quiz, at http://www.cmha.ca/mental_health/work-life-balance-quiz/#balance-quiz and Work-Life Balance: Make It Your Business, at http://www.cmha.ca/mental_health/work-life-balance-make-it-your-business/, accessed 21 February 2016.

Ian D Clark (2008), Bending rules, making connections and having fun: potential elements for a strategy to advance public service innovation, Presentation to a Symposium on Innovation, Risk and Control at the University Seminar Canada School of Public Service Ottawa, 8 May 2008, at http://atlas101.ca/ic/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Bending-rules-making-connections-and-having-fun.pdf, accessed 21 February 2016.

The MindTools Editorial Team, What is Stress? at https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTCS_00.htm, accessed 21 February 2016.

MindTools, Prioritization – Making Best Use of Your Time and Resources, at https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_92.htm, accessed 16 February 2016.

Ron Friedman (2015), 9 Productivity Tips from People Who Write About Productivity, Harvard Business Review, 31 December 2015, at https://hbr.org/2015/12/9-productivity-tips-from-people-who-write-about-productivity, accessed 7 March 2016.

Richard Neustadt (1971), Operational Skills, Note to Students in PP240, at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Operational-Skills-Richard-Neustadt-Class-Memo-Kennedy-School-1971.pdf, accessed 10 February 2016.

Jeremy Dean, 10 Foolproof Tips for Overcoming Procrastination, at MindTools, Prioritization – Making Best Use of Your Time and Resources, at http://www.spring.org.uk/2014/03/10-foolproof-tips-for-overcoming-procrastination.php, accessed 6 March 2016.

Susan Heathfield, Take Responsibility for Your Life, at http://humanresources.about.com/od/success/qt/responsible_s5.htm, accessed 16 February 2016.

Week 9: Working in Organizations

Richard Neustadt, 1971, Operational Skills, Note to Students in PP240, at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Operational-Skills-Richard-Neustadt-Class-Memo-Kennedy-School-1971.pdf, accessed 10 February 2016.

Michigan State University – Human Resources, Behavioral Competencies, on Atlas at Michigan State Behavioral Competencies, original at https://www.hr.msu.edu/performance/supportstaff/competencies.htm, accessed 15 February 2016.

CMHC’s Dictionary of Behavioural Competencies, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, at http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/corp/ca/ouhipr/ouhipr_005.cfm, accessed 15 February 2016.

OECD Competency Framework, on Atlas at OECD Core Competencies, original at http://www.oecd.org/careers/competency_framework_en.pdf, accessed 7 January 2016.

Rob Asghar (2015), The Dependability Test: Are You The Office Flake?, Forbes 10 September 2015, at http://www.forbes.com/sites/robasghar/2015/09/10/the-dependability-test-are-you-the-office-flake/#64d6410c334b, accessed 15 February 2016.

Rob Goffee and Gareth Jones, 2009, Authentic Leadership – 3 Tenets and 4 Practices, Leadership Excellence Magazine, p 17-18, reproduced with permission at https://blessingwhite.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Authentic_Leadership_Goffee_Jones.pdf, accessed 8 February 2016.

BlessingWhite’s X-Model of Employee Engagement, 8-minute video at http://blessingwhite.com/video/2012/03/12/the-x-model-of-employee-engagement/, accessed 6 February 2016. (Comparing the goals of the organization and the individual with leads to six categories of employees: Engaged, Almost Engaged, Crash and Burners, Disengaged, Honeymooners, and Hamsters.)

TrainingPoint, It’s All About Culture – What is Corporate Culture? 6-minute YouTube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sO2vNyBroco, accessed 6 February 2016.

Paul Puckridge, 7 Reasons Why Friendliness Is A Leadership Necessity, The Success Institute, at http://thesuccessinstitute.com.au/7-reasons-friendliness-leadership-necessity/, accessed 15 February 2016.

Boundless, “Honesty in Leadership: Kouzes and Posner.” Boundless Management, 21 July 2015 at https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/leadership-9/trait-approach-69/honesty-in-leadership-kouzes-and-posner-346-3944/.

Oprah.com http://www.oprah.com/relationships/When-to-Tell-the-Truth-Tell-the-Truth-or-Lie, accessed 14 February 2016.

Charles Green (2012), Why Trust is the New Core of Leadership, Forbes, 3 April 2012, at http://www.forbes.com/sites/trustedadvisor/2012/04/03/why-trust-is-the-new-core-of-leadership/#159968925e12, accessed 14 February 2016.

Bud Bilanich, Punctuality – the Politeness of Kings, and a Key to Positive Personal Impact, Your Career Mentor, at http://www.budbilanich.com/punctuality-the-politeness-of-kings-and-a-key-to-positive-personal-impact/, accessed 15 February 2016.

Team Tony, The Blueprint of Leadership – The 4 Qualities of Exceptional Leaders, at http://humanelevation.tonyrobbins.com/blog/leadership/the-blueprint-of-leadership, accessed 15 February 2016.

Dean Vella (2016), Why Respect is the Cornerstone of Effective Leadership, at http://www.thoughtleadersllc.com/2016/01/why-respect-is-the-cornerstone-of-effective-leadership/, accessed 15 February 2016.

Week 10: Persuading

Persuasion Frameworks

Gary Oren, Excellence in Communications lecture (67 minutes) at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gyixiKjctdI, accessed 29 December 2015.

Gary Oren, PowerPoint presentation in 2005 to the Mortgage Bankers Association at events.mortgagebankers.org/presidents2005/…/Orren_presentation.ppt, uploaded to the Atlas at Persuasion: The Science and Art of Effective Influence.

Influence at Work (12-minute YouTube video narrated by Dr. Robert Cialdini and Steve Martin, published on 26 November 2014) at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cFdCzN7RYbw, accessed 31 December 2015.

Marie Danziger, How to be Persuasive, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HOW-TO-BE-PERSUASIVE_new2013.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, Guidelines for Interactive Persuasion, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/GUIDELINES-FOR-INTERACTIVE-PERSUASION_new2013.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, Some Characteristics of Eloquence, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/SOME-CHARACTERISTICS-OF-ELOQUENCE_new2013.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Bill Berkowitz, Using Principles of Persuasion, Community Tool Box, at http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/participation/promoting-interest/principles-of-persuasion/main, accessed 23 January 2016.

Steve Booth-Butterfield, 2011, Primers for Polemicists, Persuasion Blog, at http://healthyinfluence.com/wordpress/2011/04/02/primers-for-polemicists/, accessed 21 January 2016.

Owen Harries, “Primer for Polemicists,” Commentary, September 1984, pp. 57-60, at https://www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/a-primer-for-polemicists/, and reproduced by the Libertarian Alliance in 1991 at http://www.libertarian.co.uk/lapubs/tactn/tactn010.htm, accessed 21 January 2016.

Cherry, K. A. (2015). How to Become a Master of Persuasion – Persuasion Techniques that Really Work, at http://psychology.about.com/od/socialpsychology/a/persuasiontech.htm, accessed 31 December 2015.

Aristotle’s Rhetoric, Book 1, Chapters 2 and 3, as excerpted in americanrhetoric.com, at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/aristotleonrhetoric.htm, accessed 27 December 2015.

Simplicity and Clarity

Brad Bridges, 10 Ways to Clarify Your Message as a Public Speaker, at http://www.bradbridges.net/2014/10/27/10-ways-clarify-your-message-public-speaker/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Stephen Boyd, Keep Your Presentation Simple, at http://www.speaking-tips.com/Articles/Keep-Your-Presentation-Simple.aspx, accessed 23 January 2016.

Sanders Communication, This is why you should keep it simple, at http://sanders.se/keep-it-simple/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Authority and Credibility

Marie Danziger, Creating Your Speaker Persona: A Little Larger than Life, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HO_WEEKS_Speaker-Persona_10-12.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Boundless.com, Establishing Credibility, at https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/organizing-and-outlining-the-speech-10/introduction-53/establishing-credibility-212-10648/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Voice & Speech, Professional Credibility, at http://voiceandspeech.com/articles/professional-credibility.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Changing Minds, Speaker Credibility, at http://changingminds.org/techniques/speaking/articles/credibility.htm, accessed 23 January 2016.

Know the Audience

Boundless.com, The Benefits of Understanding Your Audience, at https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/analyzing-the-audience-7/the-importance-of-audience-analysis-37/the-benefits-of-understanding-your-audience-161-8007/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Richard Atkins, Know Your Audience, Ladders, at http://www.theladders.com/career-advice/know-your-audience, accessed 23 January 2016.

Tom Ricci, Public Speaking: Know Your Audience, at https://www.asme.org/career-education/articles/public-speaking/public-speaking-know-your-audience, accessed 23 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, How Listeners Think, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HOW-LISTENERS-THINK_new2013.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Storytelling

Marshall Ganz, Public Narrative – Self & Us & Now, Worksheet at http://marshallganz.usmblogs.com/files/2012/08/Public-Narrative-Worksheet-Fall-2013-.pdf, accessed 6 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, Persuasive Storytelling, HKS Communications Program, at Marie Danziger, Some Characteristics of Eloquence, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Persuasive-Storytelling-new.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016., accessed 23 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, Some Rhetorical Uses of Story, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/SOME-RHETORICAL-USES-OF-STORY.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, Some Suggestions about Storytelling, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/SOME-SUGGESTIONS-ABOUT-STORYTELLING_new20131.pdf, accessed 23 January 2016.

Boundless.com, How and When to Use Narrative, at https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/, accessed 20 January 2016.

Boundless.com, The Importance of Stories, accessed 20 January 2016.

John Baldoni, Using Stories to Persuade, Harvard Business Review, 24 March 2011, at https://hbr.org/2011/03/using-stories-as-a-tool-of-per, accessed 18 January 2016.

Peter Guber, “The Four Truths of Storytelling,” Harvard Business Review, Dec. 2007. At https://hbr.org/2007/12/the-four-truths-of-the-storyteller/es, accessed 27 December 2015.

Liking

John Fallon, The Principle of Liking, one-minute YouTube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ksXYL4KJkes, accessed 23 January 2016.

Edward McBeth, Secrets of likeability and power! at http://gurueduardo.blogspot.ca/2013/04/the-idea-of-self-made-man-or-woman-is.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Bridget Beirne, How to Increase Your “Likability” to Benefit Persuasive Speech Topics, at http://www.ovationcomm.com/insights-on-communication-skills-and-relationship-building/insights-on-communication-skills/how-to-increase-your-likability-to-benefit-persuasive-speech-topics, accessed 23 January 2016.

Active Presence, Likeability – Methods of Influence for Persuasive Presentations, at http://www.activepresence.com/blog/likeability-methods-of-influence-for-persuasive-presentations#.VqPBPeT2bRY=, accessed 23 January 2016.

Know the Context

Boundless.com, Situational and Environmental Context, at https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/introduction-to-public-speaking-1/elements-of-speech-communication-21/situational-and-environmental-context-103-4186/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Saylor.org, Speaking Contexts That Affect Delivery, at https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_stand-up-speak-out-the-practice-and-ethics-of-public-speaking/s17-02-speaking-contexts-that-affect-.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Contrast

Presentation Magazine, Speech Making Technique – The compare and contrast, at http://www.presentationmagazine.com/compare-contrast-178.htm, accessed 22 January 2016.

Personal Success Today, Adding Contrast to Your Speech, at http://personalsuccesstoday.com/adding-contrast-to-your-speech/, accessed 22 January 2016.

Nancy Duarte’s 2010 TEDxEast talk at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1nYFpuc2Umk, accessed 22 January 2016.

Empathy and Listening

MindTools, Empathy at Work – Developing Skills to Understand Other People, at https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/EmpathyatWork.htm, accessed 23 January 2016.

Jessica Stillman, 3 Habits That Will Increase Your Empathy, at http://www.inc.com/jessica-stillman/3-habits-that-will-increase-your-empathy.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Boundless.com, Rules to Follow When Listening, at https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/public-speaking-ethics-2/significance-of-ethics-in-public-speaking-23/rules-to-follow-when-listening-111-7088/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Julian Treasure: 5 ways to listen better, TED Talk published on 29 July 2011, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cSohjlYQI2A, accessed 2 January 2016.

Julian Treasure: How to speak so that people want to listen, TED Talk published on 27 June 2014, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIho2S0ZahI, accessed 21 January 2016.

Listening Skills from SkillsYouNeed, at http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ips/listening-skills.html, accessed 21 January 2016.

Active Listening from MindToods at https://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/ActiveListening.htm, accessed 21 January 2016.

Types of Attitude Change

Boundless.com, Overall Psychology of Your Audience: Values, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Needs, at https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/analyzing-the-audience-7/contextual-factors-to-consider-39/overall-psychology-of-your-audience-values-beliefs-attitudes-and-needs-172-8320/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Salience

SHKaminsky.com, Strategies for persuading different kinds of audiences, at http://www.shkaminski.com/Classes/Handouts/pers1.htm, accessed 23 January 2016.

Personalizing

Dean Hyers, SagePresence, When Do I Use My Personal Story in My Presentation or Speech? at http://sagepresence.com/when-do-i-use-my-personal-story-in-my-presentation-or-speech/, accessed 22 January 2016

Presentation Zen, On sharing your own personal story to make a difference, at http://www.presentationzen.com/presentationzen/2013/11/on-being-different-the-art-of-sharing-your-own-story.html, accessed 22 January 2016.

Whitson Gordon, Lifehacker.com, Give a Better Presentation by Telling a Personal Story, at http://lifehacker.com/5970280/give-a-better-presentation-by-telling-a-personal-story, accessed 22 January 2016.

Malcolm Kushner, Presentations for Dummies, Using Stories as a Presentation Tool, http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/using-stories-as-a-presentation-tool.html, accessed 22 January 2016.

Conformity, Similarity, and Social Proof

Elizabeth Levey, How to Use the Principle of Social Proof in Persuasive Speeches, at http://www.ovationcomm.com/insights-on-communication-skills-and-relationship-building/how-to-use-the-principle-of-social-proof-in-persuasive-speeches, accessed 23 January 2016.

John Fallon, Principle of Social Proof, 1-minute YouTube video, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yU7r-jX3ju4, accessed 23 January 2016.

Kendra Cherry, What is Conformity, at http://psychology.about.com/od/socialinfluence/f/conformity.htm, accessed 23 January 2016.

Scarcity

Bridget Beirne, Why the Principle of Scarcity Can Inspire Persuasive Speech Audiences, at http://www.ovationcomm.com/insights-on-communication-skills-and-relationship-building/why-the-principle-of-scarcity-can-inspire-persuasive-speech-audiences, accessed 23 January 2016.

John Fallon, Principle of Scarcity, one-minute YouTube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIk8E6aWlPo, accessed 23 January 2016.

Reciprocity

John Fallon, Principle of Reciprocation, one-minute YouTube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Duu3hfD3Mk, accessed 23 January 2016.

Bridget Beirne, Want to Persuade Your Presentation Audience? Give Them Something, at http://www.ovationcomm.com/insights-on-communication-skills-and-relationship-building/trying-to-persuade-in-a-professional-presentation-what-are-you-giving-them, accessed 23 January 2016.

Bronwyn Ritchie, Using reciprocity to persuade without manipulating – “Do the right thing,” at http://www.pivotalpublicspeaking.com/blog/using-reciprocity-to-persuade-without-manipulating-do-the-right-thing/#.VqQqWOT2bRY, accessed 23 January 2016.

Consistency and Commitment

Bridget Beirne, How to Use the Principle of Consistency in Professional Presentations, at http://www.ovationcomm.com/insights-on-communication-skills-and-relationship-building/how-to-use-the-principle-of-consistency-in-professional-presentations, accessed 23 January 2016.

John Fallon, The Principle of Commitment and Consistency, one-minute YouTube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a_NN_v78hbQ, accessed 23 January 2016.

Analogies and Metaphors

Marie Danziger, Some Rhetorical Uses of Metaphor, Harvard Kennedy School, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/SOME-RHETORICAL-USES-OF-METAPHOR_new-20131.pdf, accessed 17 January 2016.

Peter Jeff, How to Make Metaphorical Magic in Your Speech, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/metaphor-speech-examples/, accessed 17 January 2016.

Henneke, How to Use the Persuasive Power of Metaphors, at http://www.enchantingmarketing.com/how-to-use-metaphors/, accessed 17 January 2016.

Anne Miller, Dazzling Speech Openers, at http://westsidetoastmasters.com/article_reference/dazzling_speech_openers.html, accessed 17 January 2016.

Keith Davis, A splash of colour, at http://easypublicspeaking.co.uk/word-pictures-using-imagery-in-speeches/, accessed 17 January 2016.

Humour

Marty Brounstein and Malcolm Kushner, How to Use Humor in Your Presentation, at http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-use-humor-in-your-presentation.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Simply Speaking, How to Use Humor in Your Presentations, at http://www.simplyspeakinginc.com/humor-in-presentations.htm, accessed 23 January 2016.

Rana Sinha, Presentations Skills – Do’s and Dont’s of Using Humour in Presentations and Speeches, at http://www.dot-connect.com/Presentation_skills_Dos_and_Donts_of_using_Humour_in_presentations_and_speeches.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Active Audience

Lisa B Marshall, How to Engage Your Audience, at http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/business-career/public-speaking/how-to-engage-your-audience, accessed 23 January 2016.

Ginger Public Speaking, The best way to engage your audience, at http://www.gingerpublicspeaking.com/engage-your-audience/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Darlene Price, Presentation Tips: 8 Ways to Captivate and Engage Your Audience, at http://playbook.amanet.org/presentation-tips-8-ways-to-engage-your-audience/, accessed 23 January 2016.

Counter-intuitive Sources and Arguments

Garr Reynolds, Start your presentation with PUNCH, at http://www.presentationzen.com/presentationzen/2010/10/start-your-presentation-with-punch.html, accessed 23 January 2016.

Week 11: Speaking to Persuade

Posture, voice, face, breathing, nerves

Amy Cuddy, “Your body language shapes who you are,” at http://www.ted.com/talks/amy_cuddy_your_body_language_shapes_who_you_are, TED Talk, June 2012

Holly Weeks, Creating Your Speaker Persona: A Little Larger than Life – You communicate your presence with your voice, face, and body, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HO_WEEKS_Speaker-Persona_10-12.pdf, accessed 24 January 2016.

  1. Animate your voice
  2. Engage with your face
  3. Coordinate your upper body with your face and voice
  4. Move your lower body

Allison Shapira, Just Breathe! How to add power to your voice and calm your nerves when speaking in public, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HO_SHAPIRA_Just-Breathe.pdf, accessed 24 January 2016.

Allison Shapira, Leadership – The Art of Public Speaking, 4-minute YouTube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R4QYt-NJ8mY, accessed 24 January 2016.

Advice on delivery technique from Kate Peters and Andrew Dlugan

Kate Peters, 2010, Breathing: The Seductive Key to Unlocking Your Vocal Variety, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/vocal-variety-speech-breathing/, accessed 27 January 2016.

Kate Peters, 2010, Pump Up Your Speaking Voice with a Strength Training Workout, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/voice-strength-training/, accessed 27 January 2016.

Kate Peters, 2010, Speak Up! A Guide to Voice Projection, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/speak-up-voice-projection/, accessed 27 January 2016.

Andrew Dlugan, 2011, How to Make Reading a Speech Not Like Reading a Speech, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/reading-your-speech/, accessed 27 January 2016.

Andrew Dlugan, 2011, How to Ace the Impromptu Speech, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/how-to-impromptu-speech/, accessed 27 January 2016.

Andrew Dlugan, 2011, How to Stop Saying Um, Uh, and Other Filler Words, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/stop-um-uh-filler-words/, accessed 27 January 2016.

Andrew Dlugan, 2012, Speech Pauses: 12 Techniques to Speak Volumes with Your Silence, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/pause-speech/, accessed 27 January 2016.

Andrew Dlugan, 2012, What is the Average Speaking Rate?, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/speaking-rate/, accessed 27 January 2016.

Andrew Dlugan, 2013, Volume and the Public Speaker: Be Heard and Be Effective, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/volume-public-speaker/, accessed 27 January 2016.

Andrew Dlugan, 2013, Simple Secrets to Improve Your Eye Contact, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/volume-public-speaker/, accessed 27 January 2016.

Andrew Dlugan, 2015, How to Lead a Discussion group, at http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/eye-contact/, accessed 27 January 2016.

Structure and style

Marie Danziger, Five Steps Towards More Successful Public Speaking, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/FIVE-STEPS-TOWARDS-MORE-SUCCESSFUL-PUBLIC-SPEAKING_new2013.pdf, accessed 24 January 2016.

  1. Combat fear by building confidence
  2. Use your natural physical energy
  3. Focus and simplify
  4. Prepare and practice
  5. Think visually

Chris Anderson (curator of TED Talks), How to Give a Killer Presentation, Harvard Business Review, June 2013, at https://hbr.org/2013/06/how-to-give-a-killer-presentation/ar/2, accessed 24 January 2016.

  1. Frame your story
  2. Plan your delivery
  3. Develop stage presence
  4. Putting it together (practice)

Meghan Keaney Anderson, What Makes a Presentation Great? Deconstructing an Awe-Inspiring TED Talk (the September 2009 talk by Simon Sinek: How great leaders inspire action, over 25 million views), 30 October 2013, at http://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/great-ted-talk-deconstructed-ht, accessed 24 January 2016.

  1. He opens by asking the audience to question.
    Tip: Get your listeners in the mindset. You don’t need to start with questions (although that was certainly a good approach here). A well-constructed story or a staggering fact can also work to help frame the speech.
  2. He introduces a clear and simple inflection point.
    The inflection point in speeches is the point at which the journey turns in on itself. The tone changes, the focus shifts, and, typically, there’s one line on which it all hinges.
    Tip: Know when your inflection point is coming. Give it space and emphasize when you deliver it. Use it as a milestone in your speech.
  3. He makes the speech tangible.
    Tip: Weave concrete data, research, and examples throughout your talks. Don’t concentrate them too heavily, lest you loose the attention of the crowd, but build them in throughout.
  4. He builds suspense.
    Tip: Don’t rush your story. Build in peaks and valleys to help develop suspenseful moments.
  5. He plays with parallel structure and contrast.
    Tip: Play with parallel structure and contrast in your own writing, but reserve it for the parts of your speech that are pinnacle. Overuse of parallel structure can lesson its impact.
  6. He’s smart with pauses.
    Tip: Before you give a speech, build in pauses and performance moments. Keep these moments few and far between for impact, though. Also, underline the lines your audience should be tweeting from their seats and make sure you build your emphasis around them.
  7. It’s not about the slides.
    Tip: Don’t be tied to slides. There may be a better way for you to help the audience visualize your story. Think about videos, hand drawn charts, or just the power of your own voice.
  8. Fascination cannot be faked.
    Tip: You spend lots of time getting the outline and words right for your speech. Dedicate at least a little of that time to remind yourself why your topic is so fascinating to begin with. Throw yourself into it. Show some curiosity and awe while you speak. 

Burt Helm, How to Give a Great TED Talk, at http://www.inc.com/magazine/201310/burt-helm/how-to-give-a-great-ted-talk.html, accessed 24 January 2016.

  1. Tell the story your way
  2. Work the crowd
  3. It’s not about you

Alexandra Levit, How to Give a Great Presentation, http://www.forbes.com/2010/05/18/how-to-give-a-great-presentation-forbes-woman-leadership-career.html, accessed 24 January 2016.

  1. Make the most of your introduction
  2. Consider your structure
  3. Use PowerPoint sparingly

Holly Weeks, Sex, Beer, and Rock ‘n Roll? The Good Opening, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HO_WEEKS_Sex_Beer-and-Rock-n-Roll_The-Good-Opening.pdf, accessed 24 January 2016

Marie Danziger, All About Introductions – a.k.a Grabbers or Zingers, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/ALL-ABOUT-INTRODUCTIONS_new2013.pdf, accessed 24 January 2016.

  1. Tell a personal, moving story
  2. Create curiosity with a controversial statement
  3. Ask a controversial questions—or series of questions
  4. State a striking fact or statistic
  5. Refer to some famous quotation or story, perhaps recasting them to suit the occasion
  6. Sum up a point with a pithy epigram
  7. Give a definition that does more than define
  8. Use a striking metaphor, analogy, or image

Marie Danziger, The First 60 Seconds – 7 Ways to Establish Rapport with Your Audience, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/The-First-60-Seconds_new20131.pdf, accessed 24 January 2016.

  1. Compliment them
  2. Identify with them
  3. Tell them a funny story
  4. Address their immediate concerns, fears, or expectations
  5. Acknowledge some difference or problem between you and them (if appropriate!)
  6. Describe an interesting story you just read or experienced – or a movie or TV show you just saw – to introduce your main theme
  7. Share your real-time feelings about the place, the occasion, or events that have just taken place

Marie Danziger, “Markers” for Public Speaking – highlighting key ideas with “markers” that alert your audience to pay particular attention, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Markers-for-Public-Speaking_new2013.pdf, accessed 24 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, Fly-swatter Techniques – rhetorical techniques to “swat” your audience back to attention, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/FLY-SWATTER-TECHNIQUES_new-2013.pdf, accessed 24 January 2016.

  1. Ask a probing or surprising question
  2. Give a striking fact or statistic or contrast
  3. Express a thought or emotion in real time
  4. Tell a brief story by starting with the words “One day (morning, night)…”
  5. Express an emotional reaction to your story
  6. Use a concrete, colorful visual image
  7. Suggest an unexpected metaphor or analogy
  8. Mention an audience member by name
  9. Refer to something that was said earlier in the program
  10. Say something funny when they least expect it
  11. Guess how the audience is responding to you and verbalize it
  12. Say “Here is the one (two, three) thing(s) I want you to remember”
  13. Lean forward and give a really concise, dramatic statement of your bottom line
  14. Interject a dramatic repetition of a key phrase, perhaps with a slight but significant variation
  15. Move suddenly from the dance floor to the balcony by commenting on your own performance
  16. Pause significantly and then say something important
  17. Describe a major change in your way of thinking over time
  18. Admit to ambivalence or uncertainty or internal struggle about a complex issue – but make sure you’ve been firm about other key issues
  19. Refer to someone the audience knows, loves, and respects
  20. Acknowledge some negative emotion like fear, hostility, envy
  21. Admit you’re aware of a difference or conflict between you and your audience
  22. Tell them you’ve just decided to say, share, admit something you weren’t planning to talk about, or that you’ve never said in public before
  23. Ask a question and then answer it with a resounding “NO!”
  24. Take a few steps and start with a new burst of energy
  25. Make a sudden change in your volume or intonation
  26. Announce something that you absolutely refuse to do, say, or think
  27. After making a persuasive point, pause and then say “Now here’s what I want you to do about it.”
  28. Tell them about the one thing your mother, father, grandmother told you that you’ll never forget
  29. Hold up an object that illustrates something you’re talking about
  30. Interrupt your talk with a thought, illustration, or anecdote that just occurred to you as you were speaking
  31. Refer to an article, photo, tv show, movie that you saw recently to illustrate your point
  32. Write something on the blackboard when it’s least expected
  33. Interject personal experience as concrete examples of abstract concepts
  34. Admit to some failing or weakness on your part that you have not yet overcome—but keep it light
  35. Stop what you’re saying and ask the audience if they are still with you
Dealing with challenging audiences

The Richard Lewis Model of Cultural Styles, from CrossCulture.com at http://www.crossculture.com/about-us/the-model/, accessed 27 December 2015.

Handling the Hostile Crowd, Toastmasters Magazine. Article by Judi Bailey available at page 16 at http://www.d25toastmasters.org/magazine/September2007.pdf, accessed 27 December 2015.

Defusing a Hostile Audience, Toastmasters Magazine. Article by Sandra DeLazier at http://westsidetoastmasters.com/article_reference/defusing_a_hostile_audience_2002-09.html, accessed 27 December 2015.

Week 12: Writing to Persuade

Op-Eds

Seglin, Jeffrey, 2012, How to Write an Op-Ed or Column, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HO_NEW_HOW-TO-WRITE-AN-OPED-OR-COLUMN.pdf, accessed 2 January 2016.

Duke University, 2013, How to Write an Op-Ed Article, at http://newsoffice.duke.edu/duke_resources/oped, accessed 2 January 2016.

The Op-Ed Project, Questions for Op-Ed Writers, at http://www.theopedproject.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=66&Itemid=78, accessed 25 January 2016.

Policy writing

Bob Behn, The Craft of Memo Writing, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Behn-Craft-of-Memo-Writing-2013-3rev8_26_13.pdf, accessed 27 January 2016.

Joseph Nye, Brief Guidelines for Writing Action Memoranda, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Joe-Nye_Brief-Guidelines-for-Writing-Action-Memoranda_new2013.pdf, accessed 27 January 2016.

Luciana Herman, Policy Memos, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HO_Herman_Policy-Memos_9_24_12.pdf, accessed 27 January 2016.

Luciana Herman, Executive Summary Guidelines, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HO_HERMAN-Exec-Summary_2-14-13.pdf, accessed 27 January 2016.

Marie Danziger, Checklist for Writing Action Memoranda, HKS Communications Program, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/CHECKLIST-FOR-WRITING-ACTION-MEMORANDA_New-2013.pdf, accessed 27 January 2016.

Alexandria Marzano-Lesnevich, 2014, Five Steps to Writing Effectively about Social Justice Passions, at http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HO_Alexandria_10_23_14-5_steps_to_writing_effectively_about_social_justice_passions.pdf, accessed 27 January 2016.

  1. Brainstorm widely
  2. Narrow you topic and find an angle
  3. Find a character
  4. Take the reader on a journey, no matter how small
  5. Use the ladder of abstraction (See Ladder of Abstraction)

Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Good Policy Writing, at http://www.policynl.ca/policydevelopment/policywriting.html, accessed 27 January 2016.

Grammar

Grammar Girl blog at QuickandDirtyTips.com at http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/grammar-girl, accessed 4 January 2016.

Sample assessment questions:

[TO COME]

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified on 29 June 2016.

Image: The European Business Review, at http://www.europeanbusinessreview.com/?p=1274, accessed 21 January 2016