Atlas100 Governance and Institutions

… one of the core Atlas Courses

GovandInstAtlas course syllabus

This course covers all the core topics and concepts in the core subject of Governance and Institutions.

Warning to readers! This is a very long web page. Below the tables listing the 12 core topics and 225 core concepts, there are week-by-week open-access readings associated with the estimated 120 hours of study required by an MPP or MPA student to master the material, and below that there are 247 concept comprehension questions. On 15 February 2017 this web page had 42,672 words, equivalent to a 109-page Word document in Calibri 11-point font.

The sequence of 12 core topics is designed to familiarize students the fundamental problems of democratic governance in contemporary political systems and to provide students with an understanding of decision-making in government and key elements of governance in public institutions. Governance and Institutions is most country-specific of all the Atlas subjects and many of the topics and concepts on this page have a Canadian focus.

Learning outcomes

On successful completion of this course students will have the skills and knowledge to be able to analyze public management problems by appropriately utilizing the theories and principles in the topics and concepts noted below.

Normed topics

The topics are normed in having a volume of content capable of being taught in one course-week of instruction – nominally 2 hours of in-class work and 8 hours of outside-class reading.

  1. The Study of Governance and Institutions
  2. Constitutional Framework
  3. Electoral Systems and Democratic Reform
  4. Machinery of Government
  5. Institutional Dynamics within Government
  6. Federalism
  7. Municipal Governance
  8. Diversity, Identity, and Rights
  9. Courts, Tribunals, and Commissions
  10. Indigenous Governance
  11. Organizational Design and Behaviour
  12. Modernizing Government

Like other normed topics on the Atlas, each of these has a topic description, links to core concepts relevant to the topic, learning outcomes, and a reading list drawn from available online sources.

Core concepts

The concepts in the table below are listed under each topic in the same order as they are listed on the topic pages – i.e., in the order that makes most pedagogical sense to the editors. Other orders are obviously possible and the same concepts are listed alphabetically under each topic on the subject page, Governance and Institutions.

The Study of Governance and Institutions

Institutions

Governance

Government

State

Democracy

Competing Values in Governance and Institutions

Institutional Theories – Historical, Sociological, and New Institutionalism

Neoliberalism

Interests

Public Interest

Public Administration

Public Management

Public Policy

Constitutional Framework

Republic

Constitutional Monarchy

Westminster System

The Crown

Her Majesty The Queen

Governor General of Canada

Lieutenant Governor of Ontario

Head of State vs. Head of Government

Reserve Power

Crown Prerogative

Constitution

Constitution of the United States

Constitution of Canada

Amending Formulas

Legislative Power

Executive Power

Entrenchment

Organic Statutes

Constitutional Laws

Conventions vs Laws

Constitutional Conventions

Judicial Power

Judicial Review

Social Contract

Representative Government

Responsible Government

Prorogation

Speech from the Throne

Electoral Systems and Democratic Reform

Political Party

Electoral Systems

Samara’s Five Potential Electoral Systems

Party Leader Selection and De-selection

Party Discipline

Parliament vs. Congress

Democratic Deficit

Populism

Nativism

Illiberal Democracy vs. Undemocratic Liberalism

Aggregative Model of Democracy

Condorcet’s Paradox

Deliberative Model of Democracy

Burke’s Conception of an Elected Representative

Competitive Model of Democracy

Machinery of Government

Machinery of Government

Political Executive

Prime Minister

Prime Minister’s Office

Premier

Office of the Premier

Privy Council Office

Clerk of the Privy Council

Secretary of the Cabinet, Ontario

Presidentialism

Prime Minister as First Among Equals

Prime Minister as CEO

Prime Ministerial Prerogatives

Cabinet Selection

Treasury Board Secretariat

Department of Finance

Public Service Commission

Merit Principle

Agents of Parliament

Government Program

Estimates

Institutional Dynamics within Government

Centre vs. Periphery

Guardians vs. Spenders

Staff vs. Line Positions

Regionalism

Regional Minister

Cabinet Solidarity and Secrecy

Speaking Truth to Power

Policy Advisory Systems

Cabinet Decision-Making System

Cabinet Documents

Accounting Officer

Political Aide

Political Executive vs. Civil Service

Constitutional Convention of a Politically Neutral Civil Service

Ministerial Responsibility

Public Service Anonymity

Political Neutrality

Federalism

Federalism

Forum of Federations

Multilevel Governance

Multiple Identities

Distribution of Powers

Fiscal Imbalance

Equalization Formula

Classical Federalism

Cooperative Federalism

Competitive Federalism

Constitutional Federalism

Collaborative Federalism

Asymmetrical Federalism

Council of the Federation

Intergovernmental Relations

Multilateral Collaboration with Diffuse Reciprocity

Bilateral Negotiation with Specific Reciprocity

Unilateral Action with Particular Interests

Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat

Municipal Governance

Local Government

Local Government Functions

Provincial Controls over Local Government

Provincial Ministers of Municipal Affairs

Municipal Elections

Municipal Finance

Machinery of Municipal Government

Municipal Special Purpose Bodies

Municipal Organizations

Developers, Citizens, and Local Government

Administrative Tribunals and Municipal Government

Multilevel Governance in Cities

Project-based vs. Program-based Federal Involvement in Urban Affairs

Diversity, Identity, and Rights

Cultural Differences

Colonialism

Sexual Orientation

Religion and Religious Practices

Prejudice

Bias

Discrimination

Systemic Discrimination

Duty to Accommodate

Identity and Identity Politics

Identity and Rights

Diversity and Equality

Affirmative Action

Gender Wage Gap

Intersectionality

Human Rights Laws

Viewpoint Diversity

Stereotype

Jessim’s Analysis of Stereotype Accuracy

Implicit Bias and the Harvard Implicit Association Test

Concept Creep

Victimhood Culture

Haidt’s Telos Choice – Either Truth or Social Justice

Courts, Tribunals, and Commissions

Judiciary

Canadian Courts of Law

Judicial Councils

Common Law

Stare Decisis

Criminal Law

Constitutional Law

Administrative Law

Judicialization of Politics

Charter Dialogue between Courts and Legislatures

Impartiality

Adjudication

Procedural Fairness and Natural Justice

Quasi-judicial Body

Administrative Tribunals

Human Rights Commissions

Human Rights Tribunals

Conflict of Interest and Ethics Commissioner

Commissioner of Lobbying

Public Sector Integrity Commissioner of Canada

Indigenous Governance

Aboriginal Peoples

Non-Status Indians

White Paper – Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969

Calder Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1973

Indigenous Rights

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP)

Sparrow Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1990

Aboriginal Title

Delgamuukw Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1997

Tsilhqot’in Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 2014

Land Claims

Treaty Rights

Nation-to-Nation Relationship

Inherent Right to Self-Government

Self-Government

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

Abele and Prince’s Four Models of Aboriginal Self-Government

Governance vs. Self-Government

Papillon’s Mosaic of Aboriginal Governance

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada

Indigenization

Organizational Design and Behaviour

Organizational Behaviour

Organizational Theory

Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy

Fayol’s Theory of Administration

Allison’s Three Models of Government Action

Principal-Agent Problem

Public Choice Theory

Niskanen’s Budget Maximizing Model

Downs’ Typology of Officials

Organizational Culture

Organization Chart

Organizational Structure Types

Organizational Control

Dynamic Resource Reallocation

Organizational Policies

Decentralization

Modernizing Government

Skogstad’s Four Competing Models of Authority

New Public Management

Aucoin’s New Public Governance

Networked Governance

Digital Government and E-Government

Quasi-Public Corporation

Management Differences between Public and Private Sectors

Management Consulting

Performance Improvement and Performance Leadership

Deliverology

Best Practices Advice

Management Improvement Methodologies – TQM, Six Sigma, and Lean

Private-Public Partnerships

Privatization

Red Tape Reduction

Service Standards

Human Resource Management Reforms

Performance-Related Pay

Public Sector Innovation

Public Sector Leadership and Communication

Course syllabi sources

Toronto PPG1000 Governance and Institutions; Saskatchewan-Regina JSGS801 Governance and Administration; Saskatchewan-Regina JSGS863 Aboriginal Peoples and Public Policy; Harvard DPI101 Political Institutions and Public Policy – American Politics; Harvard DPI101 Political Institutions and Public Policy – Comparative; NYU PADM2129 Race, Identity, and Inclusion in Organizations; NYU PADM2447 Majorities, Minorities, and Group Identities In America – Status, Rights, and Public Policy.

Recommended readings

Week 1: The Study of Governance and Institutions

The Atlas pages for the concept entries noted above.

Policy Profession – Skills and Knowledge Framework, UK Civil Service Learning, accessed 28 August 2016, at https://civilservicelearning.civilservice.gov.uk/sites/default/files/policy_profession_skills_and_knowledge_framework_jan2013web.pdf, accessed 28 August 2016.

Mel Cappe (2016), What is Public Policy – Definitions, Process, Institutions, People, Governance and Federal/Provincial Relations, Presentation to SPPG Orientation, 7 September 2016, at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Cappe-What-Is-Public-Policy-Orientation-2016.pdf, accessed 21 August 2016.

Jonathan Kates (2016), The Rise of the Post-Factual Democracy: A Look at Brexit, Public Policy and Governance Review, 4 July 2016, at https://ppgreview.ca/2016/07/04/the-rise-of-the-post-factual-democracy-a-look-at-brexit/, accessed 30 August 2016.

Laura Haché (2014), The Limits of Evidence-Based Policy-Making, Public Policy and Governance Review, 24 August 2014, at https://ppgreview.ca/2014/08/28/opinion-the-limits-of-evidence-based-policy-making/, accessed 30 August 2016.

Laura Payton (2016), The A-Team of wonks in the Trudeau government, Policy Options, 28 April 2016, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/april-2016/the-a-team-of-wonks-in-the-trudeau-government/, accessed 30 August 2016.

Susan Delacourt (2016), How policy is being made under the new Liberal government, Policy Options, 26 April 2016, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/april-2016/how-policy-is-being-made-under-the-new-liberal-government/, accessed 30 August 2016.

Ian Bremmer (2011), Searching the World for Good Governance, New York Times, 27 November 2011, at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/28/opinion/28iht-edbremmer28.html, accessed 30 August 2016.

Candace Smith (2012), A Brief Examination of Neoliberalism and Its Consequences, The Society Pages, Sociology Lens, 2 October 2012, at https://thesocietypages.org/sociologylens/2012/10/02/a-brief-examination-of-neoliberalism-and-its-consequences/, accessed 1 September 2016.

Week 2: Constitutional Framework

The Atlas pages for the concept entries noted above.

The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica, Representative Government, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/representative-government/, accessed 12 August 2016.

Noel Cox (last updated 2010), “The Theory of Sovereignty and the Importance of the Crown in the Realms of The Queen” [2002] ALRS 6; (2002) 2(2) Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal, 237-255, at http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/ALRS/2002/6.html, accessed 15 August 2016.

Department of Justice Canada (2012), A Consolidation of the Constitution Acts 1897 to 1982, at http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/PDF/CONST_E.pdf and, on the Atlas, at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/ConstitutionActs1867to1982.pdf, accessed 20 September 2016.

Government Printing Office (2007), The Constitution of the United States of America As Amended, at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CDOC-110hdoc50/pdf/CDOC-110hdoc50.pdf, accessed 11 August 2016, and on the Atlas, at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Constitution-of-the-United-States.pdf.

In the news…

Adrian Morrow (2016), Wynne to prorogue Ontario Legislature to clear way for Throne Speech, 8 September 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/ontario-legislature-to-prorogue-government-to-deliver-throne-speech-monday/article31762807/, accessed 19 September 2016.

Office of the Premier (2016), Speech from the Throne – A Balanced Plan to Build Ontario Up for Everyone, 12 September 2016, at https://news.ontario.ca/opo/en/2016/09/speech-from-the-throne.html, accessed 19 September 2016.

John Ibbitson (2016), Parliament is back, and the Liberals have some big decisions to make, Globe and Mail, 19 September 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/parliament-is-back-and-liberals-have-some-big-decisions-to-make/article31948289/, accessed 19 September 2016.

Gordon Gibson (2016), Tips for the PM: Stay clear of constitutional quagmires, Globe and Mail, 17 September 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/tips-for-the-pm-stay-clear-of-constitutional-quagmires/article31930829/, accessed 19 September 2016.

Ian Austin (2016), Justin Trudeau, Nearing a Year in Office, Tries to Recast Himself, New York Times, 14 September 2016, at http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/15/world/canada/justin-trudeau.html, accessed 21 September 2016.

Week 3: Electoral Systems and Democratic Reform

The Atlas pages for the concept entries noted above.

ACE Electoral Knowledge Network, Electoral Systems, at http://aceproject.org/ace-en/topics/es/onePage, accessed 25 August 2016. The ACE article notes that it was Reproduced by permission of International IDEA from Electoral System Design: The New International IDEA Handbook © 2005 International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance The electronic version of this publication is made available under a Creative Commons Attribute-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) licence.

ACE Electoral Knowledge Network, The ACE Encyclopaedia: Parties and Candidates, at http://aceproject.org/ace-en/pdf/pc/view, accessed 25 August 2016, and uploaded to the Atlas at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Parties-and-Candidates-2013.pdf.

Andre Barnes, Dara Lithwick, and Erin Virgint (2016), Electoral Systems and Electoral Reform in Canada and Elsewhere: An Overview, Library of Parliament Research Publications, at http://www.lop.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2016-06-e.pdf, accessed 4 September 2016.

Peter Loewen (2016), Consider the merits of our system before electoral reform, Ottawa Citizen, 26 August, at http://ottawacitizen.com/opinion/columnists/loewen-consider-the-merits-of-our-system-before-electoral-reform, accessed 27 August 2016

Peter Loewen (2016), Four observations on electoral reform, Submission to the House of Commons Special Committee on Electoral Reform, 30 August 2016, at http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/HOC/Committee/421/ERRE/Brief/BR8401539/br-external/LoewenPeter-e.pdf, and video recording of presentation at http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/en/PowerBrowser/PowerBrowserV2/20160830/-1/25457?globalstreamId=14&useragent=Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/51.0.2704.79 Safari/537.36 Edge/14.14393, (at 09:55:42, following the testimony of 2007 Nobel laureate in economics, Erik Maskin); prepared remarks uploaded to the Atlas with the permission of the author at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Peter-Loewen-Prepared-Remarks-30-August-2016.pdf, on 26 September 2016.

Tom Axworthy (2016), Enhancing Canadian Democracy: What’s Next after Electoral Reform? A Presentation to the House of Commons Special Committee on Electoral Reform, 23 August 2016, testimony tabled at the Special Committee of the House of Commons, uploaded to the Atlas by permission of the author at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Axworthy-2016-Enhancing-Canadian-Democracy-Whats-Next-after-Electoral-Reform.pdf, on 31 August 2016.

Paul Thomas (2016). Ten Quick Thoughts on Electoral Reform in Ten Minutes, Notes for Presentation to the House of Commons Special Committee on Electoral Reform, 20 September 2016, uploaded to the Atlas with permission of the author at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Paul-Thomas-Ten-Quick-Thoughts-on-Electoral-Reform-in-Ten-Minutes-20-September-2016.pdf, on 25 September 2016.

Paul Thomas (2016), Comparing Electoral Systems: Criteria, Advantages and Disadvantages, and the Process for Finding a Consensus on Which System is Best for Canada, 2 March 2016, uploaded to the Atlas with permission of the author at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Paul-Thomas-Comparing-Electoral-Systems-2016.pdf, on 25 September 2016.

Paul Thomas (2016), Is Mandatory Voting Right for Canada? Presentation to the Elections Canada Advisory Board, 14-15 September 2016, uploaded to the Atlas with permission of the author at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Paul-Thomas-Is-Mandatory-Voting-Right-for-Canada-2016.pdf, on 25 September 2016.

Paul Thomas (2016), Why electoral reform is always a political headache, Policy Options, 9 June 2016, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/june-2016/why-electoral-reform-is-always-a-political-headache/, accessed 30 August 2016.

Paul Thomas (2016), Electoral reform and the pros and cons of compulsory voting, Policy Options, 25 July 2016, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/july-2016/electoral-reform-and-the-pros-and-cons-of-compulsory-voting/, accessed 30 August 2016.

Yasmin Dawood (2016), Is a constitutional amendment required for electoral reform? Policy Options, 27 June 2016, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/june-2016/is-a-constitutional-amendment-required-for-electoral-reform/, accessed 30 August 2016.

Barbara McDougal (2016), Stick with the electoral system we have, Policy Options, 21 June 2016, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/june-2016/stick-with-the-electoral-system-we-have/, accessed 30 August 2016.

Leslie Seidle (2016), A flawed process for federal electoral reform, Policy Options, 10 August 2016, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/august-2016/a-flawed-process-for-federal-electoral-reform/, accessed 30 August 2016.

Samara, Electoral Reform, at http://www.samaracanada.com/samara-in-the-classroom/electoral-reform, accessed 25 August 2016.

The Economist, This land is our land – Trump in history, 28 November 2015, at http://www.economist.com/news/united-states/21679163-current-spasm-nativism-far-unique-may-be-some-consolation-what-lies, accessed 21 August 2016.

Yascha Mounk (2016), The Week Democracy Died, Slate, 14 August 2016, at http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/cover_story/2016/08/the_week_democracy_died_how_brexit_nice_turkey_and_trump_are_all_connected.html, accessed 15 August 2016.

Lee Drutman (2016), The Divided States of America, New York Times, 22 September 2016, at http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/22/opinion/campaign-stops/the-divided-states-of-america.html, accessed 22 September 2016.

Roger Cohen (2016), The Trump-Farage Road Show, New York Times, 29 August 2016, at http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/30/opinion/the-trump-farage-road-show.html, accessed 30 August 2016.

J.D. Vance (2016), When It Comes to Baskets, We’re All Deplorable, New York Times, 22 September 2016, at http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/22/opinion/when-it-comes-to-baskets-were-all-deplorable.html, accessed 22 September 2016.

David Freedman (2016), The War on Stupid People – American society increasingly mistakes intelligence for human worth, The Atlantic, July/August, at http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2016/07/the-war-on-stupid-people/485618/.

Charles Murray and Sean Collins (2016), America Against Itself – Charles Murray talks to Sean Collins about the new class war, Spiked Review, August 2016, at http://www.spiked-online.com/spiked-review/article/a-nation-divided, accessed 20 September 2016.

Joel Kotkin (2016), The New Culture War Dividing America – Underpinning the progressive elite’s snobbery is a vicious class antagonism, Spiked Review, August 2016, at http://www.spiked-online.com/spiked-review/article/the-new-culture-war-dividing-america, accessed 20 September 2016.

Joseph Heath (n.d.), The democracy deficit in Canada, at http://homes.chass.utoronto.ca/~jheath/democracy.pdf, accessed 12 August 2016 and uploaded to the Atlas at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Heath-Democracy-Deficit-in-Canada.pdf.

Joseph Heath (2016), Electoral reform and the illusion of majority rule, Policy Options, 21 June, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/june-2016/electoral-reform-and-the-illusion-of-majority-rule/, accessed 28 August 2016.

Ben Olken (2012), “Sometimes it Get’s Complicated: Condorcet’s Paradox and Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem” at http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/economics/14-75-political-economy-and-economic-development-fall-2012/lecture-notes/MIT14_75F12_Lec12.pdf.

James Stodder (2005), “Strategic Voting and Coalitions: Condorcet’s Paradox and Ben-Gurion’s Tri-lemma,” International Review of Economics Education, Vol. 4, Issue 2, 58-72, pdf available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1477388015301316, accessed 15 August 2016.

Edmund Burke (1774), Speech to the Electors of Bristol The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke. 6 vols. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1854–56, retrieved from The University of Chicago Press at http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch13s7.html, accessed 13 August 2016.

Mark D. Jarvis & Lori Turnbull: Canadian prime ministers have too much power, National Post, 2 May 2012, at http://news.nationalpost.com/full-comment/mark-d-jarvis-lori-turnbull-canadian-prime-ministers-have-too-much-power, accessed 12 August 2016.

Mark D. Jarvis: Why does Canada not disclose its rules concerning ‘caretaker’ governments? National Post, 4 April 2015, at http://news.nationalpost.com/full-comment/mark-jarvis-why-does-canada-not-disclose-its-rules-concerning-caretaker-governments, accessed 12 August 2016.

Book Review by Leslie Seidle (2012): Policy Options, http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/the-best-premier-of-the-last-40-years/democratizing-the-constitution-reforming-responsible-government-book-review/, accessed 12 August 2016.

Week 4: Machinery of Government

The Atlas pages for the concept entries noted above.

The Canadian Encylopedia, Prime Minister, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/prime-minister/, accessed 26 August 2016.

Martin Patriquin, Does Justin Trudeau risk being overexposed? Maclean’s, 26 August 2016, at http://www.macleans.ca/politics/does-justin-trudeau-risk-being-overexposed/, accessed 26 August 2016.

J.E. Hodgetts (2006), The Prime Minister’s Office, The Canadian Encylopedia, first published 7 February 2006 last edited 27 January 2015, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/prime-ministers-office/, accessed 24 August 2016.

Jay Makarenko (2007), The Prime Minister & Cabinet in Canada, Mapleleafweb, 1 June 2007, at http://mapleleafweb.com/features/prime-minister-cabinet-canada, accessed 26 August 2016.

R. Cole Harris (2006, updated 2015), The Canadian Encyclopedia, Regionalism, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/regionalism/, accessed 26 August 2016.

Steve Merti (2015), The Trudeau cabinet: how will it manage the regions? Yahoo News, 6 November 2015, at https://ca.news.yahoo.com/blogs/canada-politics/the-trudeau-cabinet-how-will-it-manage-the-163530933.html, accessed 26 August 2016.

Mark Schacter with Phillip Haid (1999), Cabinet Decision-Making in Canada: Lessons and Practices, Institute on Governance, at http://iog.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/1999_April_cabinet21.pdf and uploaded to the Atlas at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Schacter-1999-Cabinet-Decion-Making-in-Canada.pdf on 26 August 2016.

Privy Council Office, A Drafter’s Guide to Cabinet Documents, at http://www.pco-bcp.gc.ca/index.asp?lang=eng&page=information&sub=publications&doc=mc/guide-eng.htm, downloaded to the Atlas at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/PCO-2013-A-Drafters-Guide-To-Cabinet-Documents.pdf, 26 August 2016.

Brian Glicksman (2007), The Role of Accounting Officers: A Perspective from the United Kingdom, Canadian Parliamentary Review, Autumn, p. 22-26, at http://www.revparl.ca/30/3/30n3_07e_Glicksman.pdf, accessed 28 August 2016.

Donald J. Savoie (2016), The Accountability Act breeds its own problems, Policy Options, 18 April 2016, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/april-2016/the-accountability-act-breeds-its-own-problems/, accessed 30 August 2016.

George A. Larbi (1999), The New Public Management Approach and Crisis States, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, at http://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/(httpPublications)/5F280B19C6125F4380256B6600448FDB, accessed 28 August 2016.

Jeffrey Graham Bell (2006), Agents of Parliament – A New Branch of Government? Canadian Parliamentary Review, Spring 2006, 13-21, at http://www.revparl.ca/29/1/29n1_06e_Bell.pdf, accessed 24 October 2016.

Week 5: Institutional Dynamics within Government

The concept pages above.

Chris Eichbaum (2016), A Constitutional Personality – does the New Zealand public service possess one, and is it in good order, Policy Quarterly, 12(3) 50-55, August, at http://apo.org.au/resource/constitutional-personality-does-new-zealand-public-service-possess-one-and-it-good-order, accessed 10 October 2016.

Ellen Hines (2015), Internship Report: Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Ellen-Hines-2015-Intern-Report.pdf.

Ian Brodie (2012), In Defence of Political Staff, Canadian Parliamentary Review (Autumn): 33-39, at http://www.revparl.ca/35/3/35n3_12e_Brodie.pdf, accessed 28 August 2016.

Howard Anglin (2016), Backrooms and Beyond: Partisan Advisers and the Politics of Policy Work in Canada, Book review, Policy Options, 15 August 2016, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/august-2016/backrooms-and-beyond-partisan-advisers-and-the-politics-of-policy-work-in-canada-book-review/, accessed 30 August 2016.

Daniel Dickin (2016), Demystifying the role of parliamentary staffers, Policy Options, 15 July 2016, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/2016/07/15/demystifying-the-role-of-parliamentary-staffers/, accessed 30 August 2016.

Paul Thomas (2010), Who Is Getting the Message? Communications at the Centre of Government, in Public Policy Issues and the Oliphant Commission, Independent Research Studies, prepared for the Commission of Inquiry into Certain Allegations Respecting Business and Financial Dealings Between Karlheinz Schreiber and the Right Honourable Brian Mulroney, available from the Government of Canada at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2010/bcp-pco/CP32-92-2-2010-2-eng.pdf, and uploaded to the Atlas at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/CP32-92-1-2010-eng.pdf.

Prime Minster’s Office (2009), Response to the Thomas Report, at http://www.fasken.com/files/Publication/298bec35-89b1-462c-ada5-38d960bad2d0/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/73264a84-3dd3-4429-8e15-4505b2c4352b/PMO%20response%20to%20Thomas%20Report.pdf, uploaded to the Atlas at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/PMO-response-to-Thomas-Report-2009.pdf.

Rachel Curran (2016), Will “deliverology” work for the federal government? Policy Options, 27 April 2016, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/april-2016/is-deliverology-right-for-canada/, accessed 30 August 2016.

Week 6: Federalism

Concept pages above.

Robert Schertzer (and Andrew McDougall and Grace Skogstad, 2016), Collaboration and Unilateralism – explaining recent trends in IGR, Presentation to PPG1000 class, 26 October 2016, at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Collab-and-Unilat_PPG1000_Final.pdf.

Garth Stevenson (2006), Federalism, Canadian Encylopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/federalism/, accessed 3 September 2016.

Gerald Beaudoin (2006) and Daniel Panneton (2015), Distribution of Powers, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/distribution-of-powers/, accessed 3 September 2016.

Richard Simeon (2006), Federal-Provincial Relations, Canadian Encylopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/federal-provincial-relations/, accessed 3 September 2016.

W.H. McConnell (2006), Constitutional History, Canadian Encylopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/constitutional-history/, accessed 3 September 2016.

R. Hudon and Dominique Millette (2013), Québec Referendum (1980), Canadian Encylopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/quebec-referendum-1980/, accessed 3 September 2016.

Gerald L. Gall (2006), Meech Lake Accord, Canadian Encylopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/meech-lake-accord/, accessed 3 September 2016.

Gerald L. Gall (2006), Charlottetown Accord, Canadian Encylopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/the-charlottetown-accord/, accessed 3 September 2016.

Gerald L. Gall (2013), Québec Referendum (1995), Canadian Encylopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/quebec-referendum-1995/, accessed 3 September 2016.

Canadian Encyclopedia (2013), The Clarity Act (Bill C-20), at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/the-clarity-act-bill-c-20/, accessed 3 September 2016.

A. Rodney Dobell (2006), Intergovernmental Finance, Canadian Encylopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/intergovernmental-finance/, accessed 3 September 2016.

T.J. Courchene (2006), Equalization Payments, Canadian Encylopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/equalization-payments/, accessed 3 September 2016.

Édison Roy-César (2013), Canada’s Equalization Formula, Library of Parliament Research Publications, at http://www.lop.parl.gc.ca/content/lop/ResearchPublications/2008-20-e.htm, accessed 4 September 2016.

Brian Doody (2007), Fiscal Imbalance Debate: Origins and Perspectives, Mapleleafweb, at http://mapleleafweb.com/features/fiscal-imbalance-debate-origins-and-perspectives, accessed 3 September 2007.

Jeffrey Simpson (2015), Today’s fiscal imbalance is real, not imagined, Globe and Mail, 12 May 2015, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/todays-fiscal-imbalance-is-real-not-imagined/article24398966/, accessed 3 September 2016.

Week 7: Municipal Governance

Concept pages noted above.

T.J. Plunkett and Julie Smyth (2013), Municipal Government, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/municipal-government/, accessed 30 September 2016.

T.J. Plunkett (2006), Municipal Administration, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/municipal-administration/, accessed 30 September 2016.

John F. Graham (2006), Municipal Finance, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/municipal-finance/, accessed 30 September 2016.

Federation of Canadian Municipalities (2006), Your guide to municipal institutions in Canada, at https://www.fcm.ca/Documents/tools/International/Your_Guide_to_Municipal_Institutions_in_Canada_EN.pdf, accessed 29 September 2016.

Infrastructure Canada, About Infrastructure Canada, at http://www.infrastructure.gc.ca/about-apropos/index-eng.html, accessed 30 September 2016.

Prime Minister of Canada (2015), Minister of Infrastructure and Communities Mandate Letter, at http://pm.gc.ca/eng/minister-infrastructure-and-communities-mandate-letter, accessed 30 September 2016.

Premier of Ontario (2016), September 2016 Mandate letter: Municipal Affairs – Premier’s instructions to the Minister on priorities, at https://www.ontario.ca/page/september-2016-mandate-letter-municipal-affairs?_ga=1.35732964.533003089.1460318082, accessed 30 September 2016.

Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs (2009), Legislation – alphabetic list of statutes administered by the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, at http://www.mah.gov.on.ca/Page1679.aspx, accessed 30 September 2016.

City of Toronto, The Roles of the Mayor and City Council, at http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=eb6d0f1025c21410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD&vgnextchannel=9632acb640c21410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD, accessed 30 September 2016.

City of Toronto, City Council and its Committees, at http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=762b6804e1f22410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD&vgnextchannel=9632acb640c21410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD, accessed 30 September 2016.

City of Toronto, Decision-Making, at http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=e26d0f1025c21410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD&vgnextchannel=9632acb640c21410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD, accessed 30 September 2016.

City of Toronto, Elections, at http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=386d0f1025c21410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD&vgnextchannel=9632acb640c21410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD, accessed 30 September 2016.

Region of Peel, Corporate Overview, at https://www.peelregion.ca/overview.htm, accessed 30 September 2016.

Week 8: Diversity, Identity, and Rights

Concept pages noted above.

Leslie Pal (2016), Social Challenges II, Diversity – Why a Challenge? at http://www.screencast.com/t/yDPUMuKjeP (41 minutes)

Leslie Pal (2016), Social Challenges II, Diversity – Policy Tools, at http://www.screencast.com/t/GJfOxWAAlZ35 (35 minutes)

Leslie Pal (2016), Social Challenges II, Diversity – Ishaq v. Canada, at http://www.screencast.com/t/bZ5QeOJvb, (28 minutes)

Shaun P. Young and Triadafilos Triadafilopoulos (2013), Multiculturalism as a Deliberative Ethic. Public Reason 5 (1): 49-68, at http://publicreason.ro/articol/80, accessed 20 October 2015.

Inder S. Marwah, Triadafilos Triadafilopoulos, and Steven White (2013), Immigration, Citizenship and Canada’s New Conservative Party, in James Farney and David Rayside (eds.) Conservatism in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2013), 95-119, at https://www.academia.edu/4416392/Immigration_Citizenship_and_Canada_s_New_Conservative_Party_Canadian_Conservatism_in_Comparative_Context_UTP_ accessed 20 October 2016.

Zack Taylor, Phil Triadafilopoulos, and Christopher Cochrane (2012), On the Backs of Immigrants?  Conservative Politics and New Canadian Voters, Canadian Political Science Association Conference, at https://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2012/Taylor.pdf, accessed 20 October 2016.

NPR Radio Lab (2008), “Race doesn’t exist. Or does it?” (22 minute audio), 28 November 2008, at http://www.radiolab.org/story/91654-race-doesnt-exist-or-does-it/.

Microaggressions – Power, Privilege, and Everyday Life (website) at http://www.microaggressions.com/

Michael Jonas (2007), The downside of diversity – A Harvard political scientist finds that diversity hurts civic life. What happens when a liberal scholar unearths an inconvenient truth? Boston Globe, 5 August 2007, at http://archive.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2007/08/05/the_downside_of_diversity/

John Skrentny (2014), Only Minorities Need Apply, New York Times, 6 May 2014, at https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/07/opinion/only-minorities-need-apply.html, accessed 11 December 2016.

George Lakoff (2008), Presentation on The Political Mind (63-minute video), Talks at Google, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=saDHFomGW3A, accessed 11 December 2016.

Mary Pattillo (2014), The Problem of Integration, NYU Furman Center, at http://furmancenter.org/research/iri/essay/the-problem-of-integration, accessed 11 December 2016.

June Kronholz (2008), Racial Identity’s Gray Area – The Definition of Whiteness Continues to Shift, Wall Street Journal, 12 June 2008, at http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB121322793544566177, accessed 11 December 2016.

Lani Guinier (2006), The Meritocracy Myth, Dollars & Sense, at http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/guinier/publications/dollars_sense.pdf, accessed 11 December 2016.

Social Justice Wiki (2016), Basic Concepts at http://sjwiki.org/wiki/Category:Basic_concepts, accessed 11 December 2016.

Social Justice Wiki (2016), Glossary at http://sjwiki.org/wiki/Glossary, accessed 11 December 2016.

PBS Frontline (1999), Secrets of the SAT – Why the national obsession with the SAT test? And how fair, reliable and democratic is it? at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/, with links to related resources, including:

Race Sensitive Policies in Admissions – a 30-year Study, at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/race/study.html

Interview with Abigail Thernstrom, at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/interviews/thernstrom.html

Interview with Christopher Jencks, at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/interviews/jencks.html

Interview with Lani Guinier, at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/interviews/guinier.html

accessed 14 December 2016.

Peter Bregman (2012), Diversity Training Doesn’t Work, Harvard Business Review, 12 March, at https://hbr.org/2012/03/diversity-training-doesnt-work, accessed 1 November 2016.

Frank Dobbin, Alexandra Kalev, and Erin Kelly (2007), Diversity Training in Corporate America, Contexts, Vol. 6, Number 4, pp 21-27. ISSN 1536-5042, at http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/dobbin/files/2007_contexts_dobbin_kalev_kelly.pdf, accessed 1 November 2016.

Week 9: Courts, Tribunals, and Commissions

Concept pages noted above.

Gerald Gall (2013), Judiciary, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/judiciary/, accessed 7 November 2016.

Peter Doody, T.B. Smith, and Gerald Gall (2006, updated 2013), Courts of Law, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/courts-of-law/, accessed 7 November 2016.

John Brierley (2014), Common Law, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/common-law/, accessed 7 November 2016.

Wikipedia (2016), Common law, at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_law, accessed 7 November 2016.

A. Pringle (2014), Criminal Law, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/criminal-law/, accessed 7 November 2016.

Gerald Beaudoin and Jon Tattrie (2013), Constitutional Law, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/constitutional-law/, accessed 7 November 2016.

J.G. Cowan and Thomas Kuttner (2013), Administrative Law, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/administrative-law/, accessed 7 November 2016.

Peter Hogg and Allison Bushell (1997), The Charter Dialogue between Courts and Legislatures (Or Perhaps the Charter of Rights Isn’t Such a Bad Thing after All), Osgoode Hall Law Journal 35(1):75-124, at http://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1612&context=ohlj, accessed 7 November 2016.

Ran Hirschl (2006), Fordham Law Review, Vol. 75, No. 2, pp. 721-754, at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Papers.cfm?abstract_id=951610, accessed 7 November 2016.

Canadian Superior Courts Judges Association, An Independent and Impartial Judiciary, at http://www.cscja-acjcs.ca/independent_impartial-en.asp?l=5, accessed 15 November 2016.

UK Civil Servant, Impartiality and Political Impartiality, at http://www.civilservant.org.uk/ethics-impartiality.html, accessed 15 November 2016.

Troy Jollimore (2011), Impartiality, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/impartiality/, accessed 15 November 2016. Reference cited by Jollimore above is: Gert, Bernard, 1995. “Moral Impartiality,” Midwest Studies in Philosophy, XX: 102–127.

Ministry of the Attorney General, Guidelines for Administrative Tribunals, at https://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/justice-ont/french_language_services/services/administrative_tribunals.php, accessed 15 November 2016.

Week 10: Indigenous Governance

Each of the concept pages above

INAC (2012), Terminology, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100014642/1100100014643, accessed 30 September 2016.

INAC (2013), First Nations in Canada, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1307460755710/1307460872523, accessed 30 September 2016.

INAC (2015), First Nations Profiles, at http://fnp-ppn.aandc-aadnc.gc.ca/fnp/Main/index.aspx?lang=eng, accessed 30 September 2016.

INAC (2016), Map Room, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1290453474688/1290453673970, accessed 30 September 2016.

William Henderson and Gretchen Albers (2015), Self-Government – Indigenous Peoples, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-self-government/, accessed 1 October 2016.

Max Fabian Meis and Ferdinand Carrière (2014), We Will Be Free, Downsideup Film Productions, 60-minute film at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OXT2JXe8mnA, 3-minute official trailer at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1_kuDU04_DA, accessed 2 October 2016.

William Henderson, Catherine Bell, and Gretchen Albers (2016), Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-rights/, accessed 1 October 2016.

Anthony Hall and Gretchen Albers (2015), Aboriginal Treaties, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-treaties/, accessed 2 October 2016.

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (2016), General Briefing Note on Canada’s Self-government and Comprehensive Land Claims Policies and the Status of Negotiations, at https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1373385502190/1373385561540#s1-2, accessed 2 October 2016.

Jeffrey Simpson (2016), What exactly is a ‘nation-to-nation’ relationship? Globe and Mail, 25 March 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/globe-politics-insider/jeffrey-simpson-what-exactly-is-a-nation-to-nation-relationship/article29379888/, accessed 2 October 2016.

James Munson (2016), Nation-to-nation relationship taking shape, iPolitics, 4 June 2016, at https://ipolitics.ca/2016/06/04/nation-to-nation-relationship-is-starting-to-take-shape-says-inac/, accessed 2 October 2016.

United Nations, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, at http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf, accessed 7 April 2016.

Mackenzie Scrimshaw (2016), Unpacking UNDRIP: How Trudeau could take Crown/First Nations law into uncharted waters, iPolitics, 12 January 2016, at http://ipolitics.ca/2016/01/12/unpacking-undrip-how-trudeau-could-take-crownfirst-nations-law-into-uncharted-waters/, accessed 7 April 2016.

Harry Swain (2016). Should we implement UNDRIP, Walter Gordon Symposium, 23 March 2016, http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Harry-Swain-2016-Should-We-Implement-UNDRIP-Walter-Gordon-Symposium-1.pdf, accessed 7 April 2016.

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, Governance, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100013803/1100100013807#, accessed 1 October 2016.

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, Indian Government Support Programs at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100013809/1100100013810#Tools,  accessed 1 October 2016.

Aboriginal and Treaty Rights Information System (ATRIS), a web-based, geographic information system that locates Aboriginal communities and displays information relating to their potential or established Aboriginal or treaty rights, at http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100014686/1100100014687, accessed 2 October 2016.

Caleb Holden (2016), Why a New Royal Proclamation Needs a New Treaty of Niagara, Public Policy and Governance Review, 11 March 2016, at https://ppgreview.ca/2016/03/11/why-a-new-royal-proclamation-needs-a-new-treaty-of-niagara/, accessed 2 October 2016.

Sophie Borwein, Alexa Greig, Benjamin Hanff, and Maripier Isabelle (2016), What Indigenous reconciliation means for millennials, Toronto Star, 21 March, at http://www.thestar.com/opinion/commentary/2016/03/21/what-indigenous-reconciliation-means-for-millennials.html, accessed 3 April 2016.

Government of Canada, Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969, at https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ/STAGING/texte-text/cp1969_1100100010190_eng.pdf, accessed 2 October 2016.

Harry Swain and James Baillie (2015), Commentaries: Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia: Aboriginal Title and Section 35, to appear in Canadian Business Law Journal, University of Victoria, Centre for Global Studies, at https://www.uvic.ca/research/centres/globalstudies/publications/publicationsdb/pubs/tsilhqotin-nation-v-british-columbia.php, accessed 2 October 2016 and uploaded to the Atlas at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Swain-and-Baillie-Tsilhqotin-case-review-2015.pdf. See also Harry Swain and James Baillie (2015), Quagmire in our native land – Parliament must act to mitigate the disastrous consequence of judge-made law, Financial Post, 4 February 2015, at http://business.financialpost.com/fp-comment/quagmire-in-our-native-land, accessed 2 October 2016.

Harry Swain (2016), Paths to reconciliation in the post-Tsilhqot’in world, Privy Council Office seminar on aboriginal law and policy, Ottawa, 4 April 2016, uploaded to the Atlas by permission of the author at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Harry-Swain-2016-Paths-to-reconciliation.pdf.

Audrey Doerr (2015), Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Canadian Encyclopedia, at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/royal-commission-on-aboriginal-peoples/, accessed 2 October 2016.

Jeffrey Simpson (2016), What exactly is a ‘nation-to-nation’ relationship? Globe and Mail, 25 March 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/globe-politics-insider/jeffrey-simpson-what-exactly-is-a-nation-to-nation-relationship/article29379888/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Jeffrey Simpson (2016), An inquiry that seems to have no start, and no end, Globe and Mail, 19 February 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/globe-politics-insider/jeffrey-simpson-an-inquiry-that-seems-to-have-no-start-and-no-end/article28805564/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Jeffrey Simpson (2016), It takes more than money to close an education gap, Globe and Mail, 12 February 2016, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/globe-politics-insider/jeffrey-simpson-it-takes-more-than-money-to-close-an-education-gap/article28733124/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Jeffrey Simpson (2013), Too many first nations people live in a dream palace, Globe and Mail, 5 January 2013, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/too-many-first-nations-people-live-in-a-dream-palace/article6929035/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Frances Widdowson (2013), A ‘dream palace’ built on gas and gold won’t solve aboriginal poverty, Globe and Mail, 10 January 2013, at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/a-dream-palace-built-on-gas-and-gold-wont-solve-aboriginal-poverty/article7158684/, accessed 3 April 2016.

Moira Macdonald (2016), Indigenizing the academy, University Affairs, 6 April 2016, at http://www.universityaffairs.ca/features/feature-article/indigenizing-the-academy/, accessed 8 April 2016.

Week 11: Organizational Design and Behaviour

Concept pages above.

Boundless (2016), What is Organizational Behavior?, at https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-theory-3/why-study-organizational-theory-28/what-is-organizational-behavior-162-3925/, accessed 19 January 2017.

Reference for Business, Organizational Behavior, at http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Ob-Or/Organizational-Behavior.html, accessed 19 January 2017.

Business Jargons, Organizational Theory, at http://businessjargons.com/organizational-theory.html, and subsidiary sites, accessed 19 January 2017.

Graham Allison (1969), Conceptual models and the Cuban Missile Crisis, American Political Science Review 63: 689-718, at http://www3.nccu.edu.tw/~lorenzo/Allison%20Conceptual%20Models.pdf, accessed 19 January 2017.

Investopedia, Principal-Agent Problem, at http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/principal-agent-problem.asp, accessed 10 May 2016.

William F. Shughart II, Public Choice, The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, at http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/PublicChoice.html, accessed 2 May 2016.

Anthony Downs (1964), Inside Bureaucracy, P-2963, Rand Corporation, at https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/papers/2008/P2963.pdf, accessed 19 January 2017.

Michael Watkins (2013), What Is Organizational Culture? And Why Should We Care? 15 May 2013, at https://hbr.org/2013/05/what-is-organizational-culture, accessed 11 October 2016.

Boundless (2016), The Organizational Chart, at https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-structure-2/defining-organization-23/the-organizational-chart-143-1382/, accessed 19 January 2017.

University of Minnesota Libraries, Principles of Management, Organizational Control, at https://open.lib.umn.edu/principlesmanagement/chapter/15-3-organizational-control/, accessed 19 January 2017.

Yuval Atsmon (2016), How nimble resource allocation can double your company’s value, McKinsey & Company, August, at http://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/strategy-and-corporate-finance/our-insights/how-nimble-resource-allocation-can-double-your-companys-value, accessed 11 October 2016.

University of Toronto, Policies & Guidelines, at http://policies.hrandequity.utoronto.ca/, accessed 19 October 2016 (skim the major policies).

Week 12: Modernizing Government

Concept pages noted above.

George A. Larbi (1999), The New Public Management Approach and Crisis States, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, at http://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/(httpPublications)/5F280B19C6125F4380256B6600448FDB, accessed 28 August 2016.

Carolyn Tuohy (2006), Partnering for Public Purpose – New Modes of Accountability for New Modes of Governance, A paper prepared for the Symposium on Partnering for Public Purpose: How Can Governments Ensure Success and Accountability in their Financial Support for the Activities of Others? School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Toronto, 22 November 2006, available as Appendix 12, pages 81-90, in Ian Clark and Frances Lankin (2006), From Red Tape to Clear Results, The Report of the Independent Blue Ribbon Panel on Grants and Contributions Programs, Government of Canada, at http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/BT22-109-2007E.pdf, accessed 19 November 2016.

OECD (2014), Recommendation of the Council on Digital Government Strategies, at http://www.oecd.org/gov/digital-government/Recommendation-digital-government-strategies.pdf, accessed 19 November 2016.

Peggy Liu (2002), Can Public Managers Learn from Trends in Manufacturing Management, International Public Management Review – electronic Journal at http://www.ipmr.net, Volume 3, Issue 2, pages 44-59, at http://journals.sfu.ca/ipmr/index.php/ipmr/article/view/200/200, accessed 19 November 2016.

Canadian Association of Management Consultants (CMC-Canada), at http://www.cmc-canada.ca/whoweare/about-the-profession, accessed 19 November 2016.

Rachel Curran (2016), Will “deliverology” work for the federal government? Policy Options, 27 April 2016, at http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/april-2016/is-deliverology-right-for-canada/, accessed 20 November 2016.

Leslie Pal and Ian Clark (2016), Best Practices in Public Management, at http://www.atlas101.ca/pm/best-practices-in-public-management-project/, accessed 20 November 2016.

PPP Knowledge Lab, What is a PPP, at https://pppknowledgelab.org/ppp-cycle/what-ppp, accessed 21 November 2016.

OECD (2012), Recommendation of the Council on Principles for Public Governance of Public-Private Partnerships, at http://www.oecd.org/governance/budgeting/PPP-Recommendation.pdf, accessed 21 November 2016.

Paul Krugman (2016), Infrastructure Build or Privatization Scam? New York Times, 19 November, at http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/11/19/infrastructure-build-or-privatization-scam/, accessed 21 November 2016

OECD (2009), Privatisation in the 21st Century – Recent Experiences of OECD Countries, at https://www.oecd.org/daf/ca/corporategovernanceofstate-ownedenterprises/48476423.pdf, accessed 21 November 2016. 

Government of Canada (2012), Guideline on Service Standards, at https://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pol/doc-eng.aspx?id=25750, accessed 21 November 2016.

Teresa Curristine, Zsuzsanna Lonti, and Isabelle Joumard (2007), Improving Public Sector Efficiency: Challenges and Opportunities, OECD Journal on Budgeting, Volume 7, No. 1, at https://www.oecd.org/gov/budgeting/43412680.pdf, accessed 20 November 2016.     

OECD (2005), Performance-Related Pay Policies for Government Employees, at http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/governance/performance-related-pay-policies-for-government-employees_9789264007550-en#.WDIrl-QzXRZ#page1, accessed 20 November 2016.   

OECD, Public Sector Leadership for the 21st Century – Executive Summary, at http://www.oecd.org/governance/pem/2434104.pdf, accessed 21 November 2016.

Boris Groysberg and Michael Slind (2012), Leadership is a Conversation, Harvard Business Review, June, at https://hbr.org/2012/06/leadership-is-a-conversation, accessed 22 November 2016.

Concept comprehension questions

AQ100.01.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term institution choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. An institution is a significant practice, relationship, or organization in a society or culture.

b. An institution is a physical structure with a meaningful history.

c. An institution is a configuration or network of organizational capabilities (assemblies of personal, material, symbolic, and informational resources available for collective action) that is deployed according to rules and norms that structure individual participation, govern appropriate behaviour, and limit the range of acceptable outcomes.

d. An institution is a society or organization founded for a religious, educational, social, or similar purpose.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.01.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term governance choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Governance means decision making in a sovereign state.

b. Governance encompasses all processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, market, or network, whether over a family, tribe, formal or informal organization, or territory, and whether through laws, norms, power, or language.

c. The use of the term governance is associated with a shift from hierarchy to markets and networks.

d. Governance refers to the processes and interactions through which highly diverse social interests and actors produce the policies, practices, and effects of governing.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.01.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The government is the group of people who control and make decisions for a country or state.

b. Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state.

c. Government refers to the processes and interactions through which highly diverse social interests and actors produce the policies, practices, and effects of governing.

d. Government refers to the political direction and control exercised over the actions of the members, citizens, or inhabitants of communities, societies, and states.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.01.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between a government and governance choose the one that is the most valid or choose e if none is valid.

a. Government refers to the way that cities, countries, or companies are run; governance refers to the power and structure.

b. Government refers to the group of people who control and make decisions for a country or state; governance refers to the processes and interactions through which diverse social interests and actors produce the policies, practices, and effects of governing.

c. There is almost no distinction between government and governance; they are used interchangeably.

d. Governance refers to the groups and people responsible for decision-making in a country; government refers to the methods in which people use to run a country.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.01.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term state choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A state exists where there is a government able to speak with a coherent voice.

b. A state is a politically organized body of people usually occupying a definite territory.

c. A state refers to the collection of political institutions that together comprise a system of order that claims a monopoly on the exercise of coercive power and the authority to issue determinations that are binding on all of those living within a prescribed territory.

d. A state is a single institution that acts with a coherent purpose in times of national crisis but is normally united only in the abstract because its constituent institutions operate to create, consolidate, divide, exercise, and adjudicate public authority.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.01.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term democracy choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Democracy requires consulting the people directly in processes such as referendums and acting on those consultations.

b. Democracy is a form of government in which people choose leaders by voting.

c. Democracy is a political system where all eligible citizens have the right to participate, either directly or indirectly, in making the decisions that affect them.

d. Democracy is a method of group decision making characterized by a kind of equality among the participants at an essential stage of the collective decision making.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.01.07. The design and evolution of institutions and their governance are influenced by myriad values and objectives, many of which are in tension. Among the pairs listed in a-d choose the one least in tension or choose e if none are in tension.

a. Equity – Efficiency

b. Initiative – Effectiveness

c. Impartiality – Discretion

d. Equality – Merit

e. In none of the pairs is there substantial tension.

AQ100.01.08. Since the 1970s the study of public institutions has increasingly opened up to contributions from other social sciences such as history, political science and sociology of organizations, becoming less normative and more empirical. Among statements a-d pertaining to institutional theory choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Historical institutionalism considers that outcomes of public policies do not just reflect the preferences or interests of the strongest social forces but are also channeled by existing and past arrangements such that policy choices made in the past shape choices made today.

b. Sociological institutionalism defines institutionalism broadly to include symbols and cognitive schemes that model the sense people give to events and make institutionalized myths central to explanation.

c. New institutionalism questions how far organized action can be planned (the product of design or authoritarian will), and to what degree some public order is achievable in pluralistic societies where public institutions may experience a large degree of autonomy and follow logics of their own, independently of outside influences or requirements.

d. Postmodern institutionalism is typically defined by an attitude of skepticism or distrust toward traditional institutions, including the existence of objective reality and absolute truth, as well as distrust of notions of rationality, human nature, and progress.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.01.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term neoliberalism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Neoliberalism refers to the recent wave of social liberal consciousness that focuses on the advancement of underprivileged and underrepresented groups.

b. Neoliberalism is a policy model of social studies and economics that transfers control of economic factors to the private sector from the public sector.

c. Neoliberalism refers to the upspring of 19th century ideas connected to economic liberalism that support fiscal austerity, deregulation, free trade, privatization, and greatly reduced government spending.

d. Neoliberalism is a set of ideas centred on laissez-faire capitalism and is associated with the writings of Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.01.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term interests choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Interests are changes that affect one advantageously or disadvantageously.

b. Interests are wants.

c. Interests are attitudes shared by groups of people.

d. Interests are claims or demands.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.01.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term public interest choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public interest is the amount owed each year on the public debt of a government.

b. Public interest is the benefit or advantage of the community as a whole.

c. Public interest is the welfare of the general public in which the whole society has a stake and which warrants recognition, promotion, and protection by the government and its agencies.

d. Public interest is a common concern among citizens in the management and affairs of local, state, and national government. 

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.01.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term public administration choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public administration is a branch of political science dealing primarily with the structure and workings of agencies charged with the administration of governmental functions.

b. Public administration is making decisions and acting in the public interest.

c. Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.

d. Public administration is centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programs as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.01.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term public management choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public management is the work of mobilizing others to accomplish socially useful purposes and advance the public interest.

b. Public management is a nexus where politics, law, and administration necessarily engage each other.

c. Public management means adapting private sector management practices to the public sector.

d. Public management means performing certain tasks related to policy implementation in publicly supported programs.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.01.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term public policy choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public policy is systematically using the state to affect peoples’ lives.

b. Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem or interrelated set of problems.

c. Public policy is a field of education that integrates disciplinary insights from economics, political science, law, statistics, operations research, psychology, with an intellectual spirit best characterized as “compared to what?”

d. Public policy is what government does.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.01.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between a public policy and public management choose the one that is the most valid or choose e if none is valid.

a. Public policy refers to the actions or inactions government or public authorities take to address a problem or issue; public management is the work of mobilizing others to accomplish socially useful purposes and advance the public interest.

b. Public management is the system of laws, regulatory measures and courses of actions taken by government; public policies are the decisions made to achieve desired outcomes.

c. Public policy reflects the structures and functions of government; public management is organizing these structures.

d. Public management is the organization of government structure and function; public policy is how the government sets its organization and function.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.02.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term republic choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A republic is a political order in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who are entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them.

b. A republic is a government having a chief of state who is not a monarch and who in modern times is usually a president.

c. A republic is a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch.

d. A republic is most often a single sovereign state, but there are also sub-sovereign state entities that are referred to as republics.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between a constitutional monarchy and Westminster system choose the one that is the most valid or choose e if none is valid.

a. A constitutional monarchy is a system of government modeled after that in the U.K.; a Westminster system is a system of government unique to Canada.

b. A Westminster system of government is modeled after that in the U.K.; a constitutional monarchy is a system of government where a monarch shares power with a constitutionally organized government.

c. While Canada has adopted a constitutional monarchy like the U.K., it cannot be considered as having a Westminster system of government.

d. A Westminster system of government consists of the monarch and an organized level of government; a constitutional monarchy refers to the country’s parliamentary system.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.02.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term constitutional monarchy choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A constitutional monarchy is a system of government in which a monarch shares power with a constitutionally organized government.

b. A constitutional monarchy is a democratic state in which the people determine who leads the government.

c. A constitutional monarchy is a monarchy governed according to a constitution that limits and defines the powers of the sovereign.

d. A constitutional monarchy differs from absolute monarchy in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term Westminster system choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A Westminster system as a parliamentary system of government modelled after that which developed in the United Kingdom, where the seat of Parliament is the Palace of Westminster.

b. A Westminster system has three syllables followed by two and is not, repeat not, pronounced Westminister system.

c. A Westminster system of government may include some of the following features: a sovereign or head of state who functions as the nominal or legal and constitutional holder of executive power; a head of government (or head of the executive), known as the prime minister, premier, or first minister; an executive branch led by the head of government usually made up of members of the legislature with the senior members of the executive in a cabinet adhering to the principle of cabinet collective responsibility.

d. A Westminster system is based on separation of powers between the executive, led by a prime minister, and the legislature, often controlled by the Opposition.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term Her Majesty The Queen choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Her Majesty The Queen has to remain strictly neutral with respect to political matters, unable to vote or stand for election.

b. Her Majesty The Queen is the head of state for Canada.

c. Her Majesty The Queen selects her representative in Canada, the Governor General, to act on her behalf.

d. Her Majesty The Queen has a special relationship with the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, retaining the right to appoint and also meeting with him or her on a regular basis.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to the role of the Governor General of Canada choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Governor General is the representative of the Queen in Canada.

b. The Government of Canada describes the Governor General’s role as that of exercising the duties of the Head of State.

c. The Governor General represents Canada during State visits abroad and receives Royal visitors, heads of State and foreign ambassadors at Rideau Hall and at the Citadelle of Québec.

d. The Governor General is the commander-in-chief of Canada.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to the role of the Lieutenant Governor of a Province choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The role of the Lieutenant Governor of a Province includes ensuring that the province always has a Premier that commands the confidence of the Legislative Assembly.

b. The role of the Lieutenant Governor of a Province includes advising the Queen on the appointment of the Governor General.

c. The role of the Lieutenant Governor of a Province includes appointing Cabinet ministers on the advice of the Premier.

d. The role of the Lieutenant Governor of a Province includes approving government business such as regulations and public appointments by signing Orders-in-Council on the advice of Cabinet.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between head of state and head of government choose the one that is the most valid or choose e if none is valid.

a. In Canada, the Queen is head of government and does not hold any legislative or executive power; the head of state is the Prime Minister.

b. In Canada, the Queen is the head of state and does not hold any legislative or executive power, the head of government is the Prime Minister.

c. The head of government is a symbolic figure; the head of state oversees operations of the civil service and appoints members of government.

d. The Governor General can be considered the head of government, while the Queen can only be the head of state.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.02.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term reserve power choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Reserve power is the power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government.

b. Constitutional scholars disagree about the reserve powers that may be exercised by the Governor General of Canada.

c. There are no firm rules to govern the use of the Governor General’s powers in summoning, proroguing, or dissolving Parliament.

d. Before exercising reserve power, the Governor General of Canada must consult with the head of state, Her Majesty the Queen.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term Crown prerogative choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Crown prerogative is the source for the following executive powers in Canada: foreign affairs (e.g., treaty-making and diplomatic appointments); defence and the armed forces (e.g., sending peacekeepers abroad).

b. Crown prerogative is the source for the following executive powers in Canada: passports, pardons, and the prerogative of mercy; the hiring and dismissal of certain public officials; honours and titles; copyright over government publications; the law of heraldry; incorporating companies by royal charter; collecting tolls from bridges and ferries; and the right to proclaim holidays.

c. The scope of Crown prerogative in Canada has increased over time.

d. Crown prerogative is the residue of discretionary or arbitrary authority, which at any given time is legally left in the hands of the Crown.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to the comparisons between Crown prerogative and reserve power choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Crown prerogative and reserve power both refer to the ability of the Crown to act independently of the legislature and are therefore essentially the same.

b. In the United States the presidential prerogative bears some similarity to Crown prerogative in the Westminster system but, since the President is both head of government and head of state there is nothing comparable to reserve power.

c. The scope of Crown prerogative and reserve power in Canada has diminished over time.

d. Crown prerogative is typically exercised by the government, with the representative of the Crown acting exactly on the advice of the Cabinet; reserve power is the ability of the representative of the Crown to act independently of the government, sometimes in opposition to the advice of the Prime Minister.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term constitution choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A constitution describes the system of beliefs and laws by which a country, state, or organization is governed.

b. A constitution serves to establish what person or persons will exercise legislative, executive, and judicial powers.

c. A constitution serves to delineate the limits of governmental power.

d. A constitution guarantees a democratic form of government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Constitution of the United States choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Constitution of the United States is the world’s longest surviving written charter of government.

b. The Constitution of the United States assigns to Congress responsibility for organizing the executive and judicial branches, raising revenue, declaring war, and making all laws necessary for executing these powers.

c. The Constitution of the United States provides that the House of Representatives advise and consent on key executive and judicial appointments and on the ratification of treaties.

d. The Constitution of the United States gives the president the power to veto specific legislative acts, but Congress has the authority to override presidential vetoes by two-thirds majorities of both houses.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Constitution of Canada choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country and includes Constitution Act, 1867, and the Constitution Act, 1982.

b. The Constitution of Canada assigns to Parliament responsibility for organizing the executive and judicial branches, raising revenue, declaring war, and making all laws necessary for executing these powers.

c. The Constitution of Canada states that Canada is to have a Constitution similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom.

d. The Constitution of Canada includes a declaration of the rights of Canada’s Aboriginal peoples.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Constitution of Canada choose one that is valid or choose e if none is valid.

a. The Constitution of Canada describes the powers of the Prime Minister.

b. The Constitution of Canada gives Cabinet the power to veto specific legislative acts passed by the House of Commons.

c. The Constitution of Canada entrenches the federal government’s practice of making equalization payments to provinces whose revenues are below the national average.

d. The Constitution of Canada gives the House of Commons the authority to advise and consent on key executive and judicial appointments.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.02.16. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Amending formulas in the Constitution of Canada choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Majority votes in Parliament and the Legislatures of seven provinces with 50% of the population are required to amend any section of the Constitution not exempted by Sections 41, 43, 44, and 45.

b. Majority votes in Parliament and the Legislatures of seven provinces with 50% of the population are required to amend the principle of proportional representation in the House of Commons.

c. Majority votes in Parliament and the Legislatures of seven provinces with 50% of the population are required to  the Constitution of Canada in relation to the executive government of Canada.

d. Majority votes in Parliament and the Legislatures of all provinces are required to change the composition of the Supreme Court.

e. All of a-d are valid statements.

AQ100.02.17. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term legislative power choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Legislative power is the power to make law.

b. In Westminster systems, legislative power is exercised by Parliament.

c. The executive branch must not influence the legislative powers of the Legislature.

d. The effective division of legislative power between the legislature and the executive depends on the multiple factors and changes over time.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.18. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term executive power choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Executive power is the power to govern.

b. Executive power is the power to administer.

c. In Westminster systems, executive power is exercised by the Cabinet.

d. In Westminster systems, executive power is increasingly exercised by the Prime Minister and his office.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.19. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term entrenchment choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. An entrenchment clause of a basic law or constitution is a provision which makes certain amendments either more difficult or impossible, such as requiring a form of supermajority, a referendum submitted to the people, or the consent of another party.

b. Entrenchment into the text of a constitutional law is a good way to ensure continued relevance of the most important laws by requiring them to be regularly adapted to changing circumstances.

c. Entrenchment into the text of a constitutional law is a good way to ensure the inviolability of principles so fundamental that a government will never be able to violate them legally.

d. Entrenchment is the process of ensuring that a government will not be able to legally violate a principle by writing them into the text of a constitutional law.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.20. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term organic statutes choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organic statutes are acts of a legislative body establishing constitutional rules.

b. An example of an organic statute in Canada is the Supreme Court of Canada Act.

c. Organic statutes are more adaptable than constitutional laws because they are less subject to the constraints provided in constitutional amending formulas.

d. Because organic statutes are not subject to amending formulas, they cannot be considered part of the Constitution.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.21. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term constitutional laws choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Constitutional laws are usually designed to be regularly updated to ensure that they remain relevant to changing circumstances.

b. Constitutional laws differ from organic statues in that they tend to be more comprehensive than organic statutes: while organic statutes usually deal with one particular institution or situation, constitutional laws tend to be comprehensive codifications of all (or most) of a country’s constitutional rules.

c. Constitutional laws differ from organic statues in that the authority of a constitutional law is more absolute because constitutional laws are not as easily changed as statutes.

d. Constitutional laws are subject to constitutional amending formula.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.22. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term constitutional conventions choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Constitutional conventions are constitutional rules based on implicit political agreement and enforced in the political arena rather than by the courts.

b. Constitutional conventions are like customs.

c. Constitutional conventions can determined by ascertaining what constitutional principles are involved, what precedents have occurred, as well as the statements of actors and observers concerning those events.

d. Constitutional conventions are unimportant because they are ambiguous and cannot be enforced.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.23. Among statements a-d pertaining to the difference between constitutional conventions and laws choose one that is valid or choose e if none is valid.

a. Constitutional conventions are rules written in the Constitution based on implicit agreement; constitutional laws are rules written in the constitution and enforced through the political arena.

b. Constitutional laws are rules written in the constitution; constitutional conventions are written rules based on implicit agreement and enforced by the courts.

c. Constitutional conventions are written rules enforced by the court; constitutional laws are rules enforced through the political arena.

d. Constitutional laws are rules based on implicit agreement; constitutional conventions are enforced by the courts.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.02.24. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term judicial power choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Judicial power is the power to nullify unjust decisions of the government.

b. Judicial power is the power to the power to settle questions about specific violations of law and to choose a suitable punishment from among those permitted in the relevant legislation for those found guilty.

c. Judicial power includes the power to enforce the law.

d. Judicial power includes the power to change laws through the process of judicial review.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.25. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term judicial review choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Judicial review in Canada includes determinations by the courts of the concrete meaning of abstract phrases such as “subject only to such reasonable limits prescribed by law as can be demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society.”

b. Judicial review in Canada includes examinations by the courts on the fairness of the impacts of government decisions such as changes to the tax rates.

c. Judicial review in Canada includes decisions by the courts on whether the Constitution says that a particular legislative matter is of federal or provincial jurisdiction.

d. Judicial review is the judiciary’s task of defining and applying the terms of a constitution.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.26. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term social contract choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The social contract as an actual or hypothetical compact, or agreement, between the ruled and their rulers, defining the rights and duties of each.

b. John Locke (1632-1704) argued that the social contract emerges in a two-stage process, the first where naturally free and equal human beings decide to come together in civil society and establish a political regime to govern themselves and, in the second stage, they establish the ground rules of the regime by majority vote. Locke argued that once the people have put the social contract in place, they turn the process of governing over to those who fill the offices established by the contract.

c. The result of a social contract among free and equal human beings as envisioned by John Locke will not necessarily be a democratic form of government.

d. In conceptual terms, constitutional law is very close to what John Locke meant by a social contract – a constitutional law is a kind of fundamental pact emanating from the will of the people, which provides the foundation for the entire regime.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.27. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term representative government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Most democracies operate through representative government.

b. A functioning representative government is a guarantee of democracy.

c. Representative government is a political system in which an elected assembly governs and where members of the assembly act as the people’s representatives in government.

d. It is possible to have representative government without having responsible government, as in mid-nineteenth Canadian colonies where legislative assemblies were functioning but where the executive branch of government was under the control and authority of the colonial governor.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.27. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term responsible government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Most democracies operate through responsible government.

b. Responsible government as a government that is responsible to the people.

c. In Canada, responsible government means a government responsible to the representatives of the people – an executive or Cabinet collectively dependent on the votes of a majority in the elected legislature or Parliament.

d. In Canada, most of the conventions of responsible government are written down in the form of constitutional laws and organic statues.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.28. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term Speech from the Throne choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Speech from the Throne (or Throne Speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the reigning sovereign, or a representative thereof, reads a prepared speech to the members of parliament when a session is opened, outlining the government’s agenda for the session.

b. In Canada, for the federal government and most provinces, the Speech from the Throne is delivered annually, usually in January.

c. In Canada, the Speech from the Throne, is read by the representative of the Crown (Governor General or Lieutenant Governor) but it is prepared by the government.

d. In the United States, the closest analogue to the Speech from the Throne is the annual State of the Union address.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.02.29. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term prorogation choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In Canada, prorogation is the end of a parliamentary session.

b. Prorogation differs from a recess or adjournment, which do not end a session, and from a complete dissolution of Parliament, which ends both the session and the entire Parliament, requiring an election for the House of Commons.

c. Prorogation is routinely used by Canadian governments to avoid addressing issues in Parliament which might lead to losing a confidence vote.

d. In Canada, the legislature is typically prorogued upon the completion of the agenda set forth in the Speech from the Throne and remains in recess until the Governor General summons Parliament.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term political party choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A political party is an organized group of people who exercise their legal right to identify with a set of similar political aims and opinions, and one that seeks to influence public policy by getting its candidates elected to public office.

b. Key tasks of political parties include: soliciting and prioritizing needs and policy priorities as identified by members and supporters; familiarizing and educating voters and citizens in the functioning of the political and electoral system and in generating general political values; and educating and training party members and leadership on an ongoing basis.

c. Key tasks of political parties include: balancing opposing demands and converting them into general policies; activating and mobilizing citizens toward political participation while demonstrating how they can transform public opinion into viable policy options.

d. In most well-functioning democracies, individual political parties enjoy a measure of constitutional protection in order to enhance stability an encourage political engagement.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to electoral systems choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Electoral systems translate the votes cast in an election into results – the offices/seats – won by parties and candidates.

b. The underlying dynamics of democratic politics are universal resulting in electoral systems in democracies being highly similar.

c. Key variables in electoral systems include: the electoral formula used (i.e., whether a plurality/majority, proportional, mixed or other system is used, and what mathematical formula is used to calculate the seat allocation); the ballot structure (i.e., whether the voter votes for a candidate or a party and whether the voter makes a single choice or expresses a series of preferences); and the district magnitude (not how many voters live in a district, but how many representatives to the legislature that district elects).

d. In designing an electoral system, important principles include: representation (to transform the expressed will of the voters into people who will represent it); transparency (known to both voters and political parties and candidates well in advance in order to avoid confusion and distrust in the results they produce at elections); and inclusiveness (allowing as many as possible citizens to and assuring access for all to the polling station).

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to classes of electoral systems choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Proportional electoral systems are designed to allocate seats in proportion to votes cast for political parties.

b. Non-proportional electoral systems are not designed to generate an outcome where seats won by political parties reflect their share of total votes cast. They include “majoritarian” and “plurality” systems (such as AV and FPTP, respectively) where candidates must win riding-level contests by capturing a plurality or majority of votes cast.

c. Non-proportional electoral systems include “majoritarian” systems (such as alternative vote) and “plurality” systems (such first past the post) where candidates must win riding-level contests by capturing a plurality or majority of votes cast.

d. Semi-proportional systems are designed to allocate seats in relatively proportional manner to the votes cast for political parties. For example, the single transferable vote system is a semi-proportional system that can become more or less proportional, depending on the number of MPs elected from each riding.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term first past the post choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In a first past the post electoral system voters in each constituency vote for one candidate in that constituency and whoever has the most votes is elected as the representative for that constituency.

b. In a first past the post electoral system candidates are normally associated with a party, and the name of their party now appears on the ballot with the name of the candidate.

c. The first past the post electoral system is used in approximately 58 countries is in the world, including Canada, United Kingdom, United States, and India.

d. The first past the post electoral system favours “big tent” parties with sufficiently broad appeal to win the support of a significant proportion of the electorate as well as small regional parties with support concentrated in specific ridings but small issue-based parties, whose support is spread across the country, are less likely to win seats.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term alternative vote choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Under alternative vote each riding elects one member and voters rank candidates in order of preference. The winning candidate must have the support of a majority of voters in the riding, if necessary via a transfer of votes from eliminated candidates.

b. There are no Westminster government countries where the electoral system is based on alternative vote.

c. Under alternative vote if a candidate has a majority of first choice votes in a riding, they are declared the winner. If no one has a majority, the last place candidate is eliminated, and their votes are reallocated to the voters’ next choice on the ballot. This process continues until one candidate has a majority of votes.

d. The alternative vote electoral system is also known as “supplementary vote,” “instant run-off,” “preferential voting,” “ranked choice voting,” and “ranked ballot voting.”

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term list proportional representation choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. List proportional representation systems are designed to match parties’ proportion of seats in the legislature to their share of votes cast nationally, provincially or regionally – depending on the design of the system.

b. In list proportional representation systems, ridings are typically large (the average internationally is about 10 members per district), and voters generally cast a ballot for a political party or a specific candidate on a list prepared by the party.

c. List proportional representation is used in over 80 countries around the world, including Denmark, Norway and Spain.

d. In list proportional representation systems, voters have two votes: one for a candidate running in their riding, and a second for a party or a candidate on a party list.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term mixed-member proportional representation choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In mixed-member proportional representation, ridings are typically large (the average internationally is about 10 MPs per district), and voters generally cast a ballot for a political party or a specific candidate on a list prepared by the party.

b. Mixed-member proportional representation is used in nine countries, including Germany and New Zealand.

c. In mixed-member proportional representation, voters have two votes: one for a candidate running in their riding, and a second for a party or a candidate on a party list.

d. List proportional representation systems are designed to match parties’ proportion of seats in the legislature to their share of votes cast nationally, provincially or regionally – depending on the design of the system.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term single transferable vote choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The single transferable vote combines elements of different systems to both achieve a relatively proportional result and to elect MPs from specific constituencies. It has ranked ballots and large ridings, each with multiple elected MPs.

b. The single transferable vote system is used in two countries – Ireland and Malta.

c. In the single transferable vote system, voters rank candidates in order of preference. They can vote for candidates from a variety of parties or from a single party. Some forms of STV require voters to rank all candidates, while others make it optional. By the time all seats from the riding are assigned, nearly all electors’ votes will have counted towards the election of a candidate, producing a relatively proportional result. The result tends to grow more proportional with larger ridings that have more MPs.

d. To be elected in the single transferable vote system, a candidate must receive a certain quota: a number of votes required to win calculated using the number of votes cast in the riding and the number of seats to be won there. Candidates who reach the quota are elected and become MPs. Excess votes beyond that quota are transferred to the next choice on voters’ ballots. If no candidate has reached the quota, the last-place candidate is eliminated, and their votes are transferred to remaining candidates. Counting continues in this way through subsequent rounds until each seat is filled. This process can take many rounds to complete and cannot begin until all votes are counted. Therefore the results may not be known for some time after voting closes.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to minority-majority categories of government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A majority government in a Westminster system is one in which a single party (or a single coalition of likeminded parties) holds more than half the seats in the legislature and is therefore able to pass legislation without the support of opposition parties.

b. A coalition government in a Westminster system is one in which two or more parties share power in order to ensure the government has enough votes to maintain the confidence of the legislature.

c. A minority government in a Westminster system is one in which no party holds more than half the seats in the legislature.

d. A minority government cannot last longer than a single Parliamentary session without entering negotiations to form a coalition government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to party leader selection and deselection choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The most successful political parties have a high degree of ideological coherence and have developed mechanisms to select leaders who help maintain such coherence over time.

b. In most political parties, local selection processes deal mostly with local candidates to general elections, while the national leadership is selected on a national basis. In both cases, the party has to strike a difficult balance between national level strategies and local sensitivities while considering the party’s overall role in the political process at all levels.

c. Most political parties consist of different wings, subunits or special groups, which constantly seek to influence the party’s leadership and therefore also the selection process of party leaders.

d. The opening of internal leadership selection mechanisms to more general participation or democratization has also led to unintended consequences such as to the rise of internal battles between party groups and factions or even to the phenomenon of candidates taking part in leadership elections without any dedication to the party itself but rather to a single issue that in their view needs to be addressed publicly.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to party discipline choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Party discipline in the Westminster system is the ability of party leaders to ensure party members’ support their policies in Parliament through various means, including control of members’ nomination for election and membership in the caucus and their assignment to various party and parliamentary roles.

b. Populist parties tend to exhibit greater party discipline than big tent parties.

c. Breaking party discipline in parliamentary votes can result in a number of penalties for the member who dissents. These penalties include not being promoted to a cabinet position, and losing other perks of elected office like travel.

d. Party discipline tends to be extremely strong in Westminster systems such as the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and India in which a vote by the legislature against the government is understood to cause the government to collapse, according to the convention of confidence votes.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to democratic deficit choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Democratic deficit can be defined as perceived deficiency in the way a particular political arrangement works in practice against a benchmark as to how it is supposed to work in theory.

b. There is a widely accepted theoretical account of what makes democracies democratic – or more specifically, how democratic institutions serve to confer legitimacy upon the power of the state.

c. The use of the term democratic deficit usually implies a connotation with a procedural perspective of democratic legitimacy. Decisions are thereby viewed as legitimate if they fulfil certain procedural requirements, such as direct or indirect citizen participation through elections as well as scrutiny and accountability of policy‐makers.

d. Most of the proposals for correcting the democratic deficit involve having more people vote on more issues, more often.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to comparisons between the Canadian Parliament and the United States Congress, choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Legislatures are the heart of a democratic society. This is where the laws of the land are debated, altered, approved, or rejected. The US Congress and the Canadian Parliament are two models of liberal democratic legislatures, each of which poses its own challenges with respect to the democratic deficit and the quality of democracy in the two countries.

b. The strengths and weaknesses are rooted in the fundamental difference between the governmental systems in Canada and the United States, i.e., between Westminster-style parliamentary government in Canada, with its concept of responsible government characterized by a close link between legislature and executive and by concentrated authority, and separation of powers in United States, with its checks and balances, and its dispersal of authority.

c. There is little evidence that much personal voting occurs in Canada. Most studies indicate that incumbency rarely accounts for more than 5 percent of a local vote total; instead, party and leader are the largest determinants of electoral outcomes. By contrast, American legislators enjoy substantial personal and incumbency benefits, despite much larger districts.

d. Political scientists are largely in agreement that in both Canada and the United States a more civil and deliberative legislative assembly focused on problem solving would have greater public legitimacy than would one filled with acrimony and vitriol.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to populism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Populism can be defined as political ideas and activities that are intended to get the support of ordinary people by giving them what they want.

b. Populist leaders usually try to mobilize the population (often, but not always, the lower classes) against an institution or government, usually in the defense of the underdog or the wronged.

c. Populism seeks to unite the uncorrupt and the unsophisticated against the corrupt dominant elites (usually the orthodox politicians) and their camp followers (usually the rich and the intellectuals).

d. Populist leaders often resort to appeals to the basest but also some of the most ineradicable traits of human beings – their capacity for mob anger, their racist resentments, their cruelty, their lust, their search for scapegoats, their insecurities.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to nativism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Nativism can be defined as the political idea that people who were born in a country are more important than people who have come to live in the country from somewhere else.

b. Nativism is a policy of favouring native inhabitants as opposed to immigrants.

c. Nativism is a relatively recent phenomenon in North America.

d. Historians have speculated that some Americans’ intermittent hostility to outsiders is fundamentally religious – a transmutation of a hunch that the devil walks among them, and that the faithful must be ever vigilant for his guises.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.16. Among statements a-d pertaining to what Yascha Mounk describes as a growing tension between illiberal democracy and undemocratic liberalism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Across the established democracies of North America and Western Europe, the last years have witnessed a rise of figures who promise to stand up for ordinary people, to do away with a corrupt political elite, to put the ethnic and religious minorities who are now (supposedly) being favored in their rightful (subordinate) place, to do away with liberal political institutions like an independent judiciary or a free, robust press so long as those stand in the way of the people’s will.

b. In both Europe and North America, much of the left increasingly thinks of “liberal” as a term of abuse. Indeed, a growing share of left-wing activists has gone from understandable anger at the many shortcomings of the status quo to an outright rejection of the foundational political values of our age. Assuming that ideals that are flagrantly contradicted in practice can’t be worth very much in theory either, they too are giving up on the core tenets of liberal democracy.

c. Centrist politicians have now become the last explicit defenders of liberalism. But, squeezed between a blatantly authoritarian right and an increasingly illiberal left, they have begun to seek refuge in new forms of technocratic rule.

d. If the populists are pushing for a political system that does away with one half of liberal democracy, the truth is that a large number of establishment politicians are increasingly tempted to embrace a system that does away with the other half. The political establishment is increasingly insulating itself from the people’s demands, opting for a form of rights without democracy.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.17. Among statements a-d pertaining to preference aggregation and Condorcet’s paradox choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Proportional representation is more democratic than the first-past-the-post electoral system.

b. The desire to represent somehow the will of the majority through our electoral system is a futile quest – electoral reform can move but not eliminate the “bump under the carpet” (the element of arbitrariness) produced by Condorcet’s paradox.

c. Condorcet’s paradox is a classic problem in democracy, first formalised by the Marquis de Condorcet at the time of the French revolution, stating that majority preferences can become intransitive with three or more options. It is possible for a certain electorate to express a preference for A over B, a preference for B over C, and a preference for C over A, all from the same set of ballots.

d. In proportional representation systems where parliamentary seats are allocated based strictly on vote share the “bump under the carpet” is moved to the legislature where, since the majority will is often non-existent there, something arbitrary is going to have to happen in order to get legislation passed.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.18. Among statements a-d pertaining to the aggregative model of democracy choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The aggregative model of democracy is one in which the political system is as transparent as possible to the popular will. Instead of the elite imposing its own goals and preferences upon the public, the public itself determines what should be done, and the political leadership simply implements its decisions.

b. Proponents of the aggregative model tend to believe that all political legitimacy must be anchored in a popular vote. This makes them instinctively suspicious of any institutional arrangement that allows individuals who have not been directly elected to wield significant power. Commitment to an aggregative view also often underlies support for proportional representation.

c. Often there is simply no way to construct a social preference ordering out of the set of individual preferences. Individual opinions simply do not add up to one coherent general will. The most straightforward example of this is Condorcet’s paradox.

d. Proportional representation is a proven mechanism for solving the social preference problem.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.19. Among statements a-d pertaining to the deliberative model of democracy choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The deliberative model of democracy is one where the function of voting and elections is not to permit the naked expression of interests, it is to constitute a deliberative body that will be charged with the responsibility of determining where the common good lies.

b. The American political system tends to be organized on an aggregative model, the Westminster parliamentary tradition has been deeply influenced by the deliberative conception of politics (in part due to the influence of philosopher and parliamentarian Edmund Burke, who provided the most influential articulation of the ideal).

c. For proponents of the deliberative model of democracy there is very little to be said for free votes in parliament. What matters is not the counting of hands, but rather the deliberation that goes on in caucus, and within the political parties more generally. Once caucus has decided, after a free and open discussion, where the public interest lies, it is only natural that party discipline should be imposed upon members. A free vote defeats the purpose of having deliberation in committee and caucus and increases the likelihood that parochial interests of one type or another will sway the member’s vote.

d. The often criticized practices of horse-trading and logrolling that take place in legislative bodies are evidence of the deliberative model at work.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.20. Among statements a-d pertaining to the competitive model of democracy choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The competitive model of democracy considers the competition for political leadership to be the central feature of democratic institutions.

b. The competitive model shifts the emphasis away from the content of legislation towards those who enact it. The complexity of human affairs is such that, throughout all of human history, groups have needed leaders to make decisions. Things do not change fundamentally with the transition to democracy. The core function of democratic institutions is simply to impose some constraints on who gets to run things.

c. For proponents of the competitive model of democracy the ideal democratic system is one that generates strong, capable leadership, but which does not allow such leadership to become entrenched.

d. The competitive model of government recognizes the delicate balancing act between giving give too little power to the leadership (with the resulting ineffective government, institutional gridlock, and public frustration with the political process) and giving too much power to the leadership (with the resulting ossification of power structures, cronyism, and public discontent with the leadership). The goal is to create a powerful institutional structure, but then to ensure a steady circulation of qualified personnel within that structure.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.03.21. Among statements a-d pertaining to the comparative state of Canadian democracy and the need for electoral reform choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. From a comparative perspective, Canada is not particularly easy to govern given that it is highly regionalized, with economies that are largely at odds with one another, with several major religious groups, not to mention several founding ethnic groups and then immigrant waves that at various times viewed each other as unfit for common purpose and interaction.

b. Canada has functioned relatively well as a democracy with nearly 150 years of uninterrupted democratic rule with dozens of peaceful transfers of power. By the standards of the times, Canadian elections have been well-conducted, its franchise liberally composed, and its policies relatively enlightened.

c. The fact that Canada has been held together and integrated might have something to do with an electoral system which has rewarded parties that do the work between elections of building the largest possible coalitions of people, and then putting in place policies that address their diverse demands.

d. There is no perfect electoral system. Different countries have relatively strong, healthy democracies under a variety of electoral systems.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term machinery of government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Machinery of government refers to the interconnected structures and processes of government in the executive branch of government.

b. In Canada, the Machinery of Government secretariat in the Privy Council Office provides advice and support to the Prime Minister and the Clerk of the Privy Council on the structure and functioning of the government as a whole.

c. Most changes to the machinery of government in Canada require legislation to implement.

d. Much of the advice on the machinery of government involves supplying advice on the prerogative responsibilities of the Prime Minister, including: Ministerial mandates; the structure of Cabinet, its committees and their decision-making processes; the structure and organization of government portfolios; the roles and accountability of senior public office holders; and transitions from government to government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term political executive choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In a Westminster system, the political executive comprises the Prime Minister or Premier, Cabinet and the most senior members of the continuing civil service.

b. In a Westminster system, the political executive comprises the Prime Minister or Premier and Cabinet and the political staff that support them.

c. In a Westminster system, the political executive includes the Prime Minster’s (or Premier’s) Office and ministers’ offices.

d. The political executive directs the government of the day, while the civil service, like the Crown itself, enjoys continuity through transitions of government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term prime minister choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In a Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch.

b. In Canada, the roles and responsibilities of the prime minister are set out in the Constitution Acts 1867 to 1982.

c. The prime minister controls the governing party, speaks for it, and after appointment to office has at his or her disposal a large number of patronage appointments with which to reward the party faithful. The prime minister names senators and senior judges for appointment, and appoints and dismisses all members of Cabinet – through the governor general – and decides on their responsibilities.

d. The prime minister enjoys a special relationship with the Crown, as he or she is the only person who can consult with the governor general, and advise the governor general to dissolve or prorogue Parliament and call an election.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term Prime Minister’s Office choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In Canada, the responsibilities of Prime Minster’s Office are set out in the legislation rather than in the Constitution.

b. The Prime Minister’s Office is responsible for press and public relations, the Prime Minister’s correspondence and speaking engagements, advising on candidates for appointment to the numerous order-in-council appointees, maintaining contact with the party’s officials outside the legislature and with the party caucus in the legislature.

c. In Canada, the Prime Minster’s Office is staffed with temporary political appointees rather than full-time, career civil servants and its budget is a component of the estimates for the Privy Council Office.

d. The functions of Prime Minister’s Office derive from the Prime Minister’s political responsibilities as party leader rather than as head of government, though in practice the division between these responsibilities is not clear.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term premier choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In Westminster systems, the head of government can be referred to as prime minister, premier, or first minister.

b. In Canada, the normal term for head of government of the country is prime minister, of a province is premier, and of a territory is first minister.

c. The prime minister – premier distinction does not exist in French, with federal, provincial, and territorial first ministers being styled premier minister.

d. In Canada, although the word premier in English is merely a synonym for prime minister, it is employed for provincial and territorial prime ministers to differentiate them from the Prime Minister of Canada.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Office of the Premier choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Office of the Premier of a Canadian province, often referred to as the Premier’s Office or PO, provides logistical and political support to the Premier.

b. The Office of the Premier in many provinces operate in an analogous fashion to the way the Prime Minister’s Office provides support to the Prime Minister of Canada.

c. The Office of the Premier would, out of respect to Westminster traditions of separation of partisan and policy advice, not normally have positions with policy in their title.

d. Staff in the Office of the Premier normally work closely with non-partisan staff in the Cabinet Office, which is also organized to support the work of the Premier.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Privy Council Office choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Most Westminster-style governments have a Cabinet Office and in the Canadian government, this office is called the Privy Council Office.

b. The Privy Council Office reports to the Prime Minister’s Office and provides objective information from international and domestic sources inside and outside government (including the provinces and territories).

c. The Privy Council Office supports the Prime Minister and Cabinet by bringing together objective information and policy advice from across the Public Service.

d. The Privy Council Office manages the appointments process for senior positions in federal departments, Crown corporations and agencies.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to the position of Clerk of the Privy Council choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Most Westminster-style governments have a Cabinet Office headed by a public servant and in the Canadian government this position is called the Clerk of the Privy Council.

b. The Clerk of the Privy Council reports to the Chief of Staff to the Prime Minister.

c. The Clerk of the Privy Council is also the Secretary to the Cabinet.

d. The Clerk of the Privy Council is also the Head of the Public Service.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to the position of Secretary of the Cabinet in Ontario choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Most Westminster-style governments have a Cabinet Office headed by a public servant and in the Ontario government this position is called the Secretary of the Cabinet.

b. In Ontario, the Secretary of the Cabinet reports to the Chief of Staff to the Premier.

c. In Ontario, the Secretary of the Cabinet is also the Clerk of the Executive Council.

d. In Ontario, the Secretary of the Cabinet is also the Head of the Ontario Public Service.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to presidentialism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Presidentialism is a form of government in which the head of government is also the head of state.

b. Presidentialism is a form of government in which the executive is not politically responsibility to the legislature.

c. Presidentialism is a form of government in which the head of government is popularly elected.

d. Presidentialism is a form of government in which executive responsibility is unipersonal.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to the first among equals model of the Prime Minister choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In the first among equals model, the Prime Minister can be viewed as chair of a board attempting to forge a consensus out of competing and sometimes dissenting views.

b. In the first among equals model, the Prime Minister cannot move forward unless there is a consensus or, failing that, a clear majority on any given position.

c. The Prime Ministership of Lester B. Pearson from 22 April 1963 to 20 April 1968 was close to the first among equals model.

d. After Lester Pearson, Prime Ministerships were less like the first among equals model and more like the Prime Minister as CEO model, consistent with the presidentialization of a Westminster system.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Prime Minister as CEO model choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Prime Minister as CEO model is one where the Prime Minister is chief executive officer (CEO).

b. In the Prime Minister as CEO model Ministers effectively report to the Prime Minister and the only collective role which cabinet plays is advisory.

c. In the Prime Minister as CEO model is consistent with the presidentialization of a Westminster system.

d. The Prime Minister as CEO model is unusual in modern Westminster systems, most of which are better characterized by the Prime Minister as first among equals model.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to Prime Ministerial prerogatives choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Prime Ministerial prerogatives are Crown prerogatives that are exercised on the advice of the Prime Minister, in contrast to the advice of the Cabinet (Ministers in Council).

b. Much of the power enjoyed by a Prime Minister stems from his or her authority to form the Cabinet since it is the Prime Minister who decides who will actually make up the Cabinet, and what portfolios will be assigned to each person.

c. The Prime Minister also has the power to determine who holds many key offices in the public service, including Senators, Supreme Court judges, deputy ministers, and heads of government agencies, boards, and corporations.

d. The Prime Minister is often seen as the nation’s chief diplomat in an era of summit diplomacy when Heads of Governments regularly meet with one another on a face-to-face basis.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to Cabinet selection choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Prime Ministers must select Cabinet members from elected members of the legislature.

b. Prime Minister generally appoint MPs solely from his or her political party to serve (unless it is a coalition government).

c. Prime Ministers may use Cabinet appointments to smooth over divisions within the party by, for example, appointing a chief rival to a key Cabinet position.

d. Prime Ministers usually try to select a Cabinet that is representative of a country’s regional and linguistic traditions which in Canada means having at least one Cabinet Minister from each province or region.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Treasury Board choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Treasury Board is a Cabinet committee of the Queen’s Privy Council of Canada and its responsibilities include developing tax policy and managing federal borrowing on financial markets.

b. The Treasury Board is responsible for accountability and ethics, financial, personnel and administrative management, comptrollership, approving regulations and most Orders-in-Council.

c. The Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat provides advice and makes recommendations to the Treasury Board committee of ministers on how the government spends money on programs and services, how it regulates and how it is managed.

d. The Treasury Board is chaired by the President of the Treasury Board.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.16. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Department of Finance choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In Canada, the Department of Finance monitors developments in Canada and around the world to provide analysis and advice to the Government of Canada.

b. In Canada, the Department of Finance develops and implements fiscal and economic policies that support the economic and social goals of Canada and its people.

c. In Canada, the Department of Finance interacts extensively with other federal organizations and acts as a conduit for the views of participants in the economy from all parts of Canada.

d. In Canada, the Department of Finance is responsible for financial management and comptrollership policies across the government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.17. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Public Service Commission choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A public service commission (or civil service commission) is a body created to protect the non-partisan nature of a public (or civil) service.

b. In the Canadian federal government, the Public Service Commission is mandated to oversee the integrity of the staffing system and ensure non-partisanship by carrying out audits that provide assurance and conducting investigations that can lead to corrective action in the case of errors or problems.

c. In the Canadian federal government, the Public Service Commission is mandated to administer provisions of the Public Service Employment Act related to the political activities of employees and deputy heads.

d. In the Canadian federal government, the President of the Public Service Commission has the status of a deputy minister and, like other deputy ministers, can be appointed and removed without reference to Parliament.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.18. Among statements a-d pertaining to the merit principle choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The meaning of merit has shifted over time, with merit becoming a richer and more complex concept that is infused with central, and sometimes contending, public service values.

b. A careful distinction must be made between the merit “principle” and the merit “system” and the current definition of the merit system is very similar to earlier ones.

c. The meaning of merit has become so difficulty to specify with precision that it is no longer used as the basis of hiring in Canadian civil services.

d. Hiring on the basis of merit is cited as a core principle of most civil services in OECD countries.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.19. Among statements a-d pertaining to the agents of Parliament choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In Canada, all of the following are agents of Parliament: Auditor General; Chief Electoral Officer; Privacy Commissioner; Parliamentary Budget Officer.

b. An agent of Parliament is required to have the confidence of either the House or Senate or both to approve (or nominate and approve) the agency’s executive candidate.

c. An agent of Parliament has a statutory guarantee of a term at least five years in length.

d. Cabinet cannot remove the executive head of an agent of Parliament without a resolution of the House and/or the Senate.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.20. Among statements a-d pertaining to the government program choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Government of Canada defines a program as a group of related resource inputs and activities that are managed to meet specific needs and to achieve intended results, and that are treated as a budgetary unit.

b. Each program has a budget that is described in a document (e.g., Estimates) before being authorized by the legislature.

c. Some government programs are disaggregated into sub-programs and some of these can be further disaggregated into sub-sub-programs, each of which has a specific budget, and is delivered by a specific institutional unit headed by a responsible manager.

d. For management purposes is more useful and precise to specify programs in terms of outputs and outcomes than in terms of financial costs and delivery units.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.04.21. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Estimates choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. For governments in the Westminster tradition, Estimates publications explain how organizations plan to spend funds.

b. Estimates publications explain how federal organizations plan to spend funds. The Main Estimates and Supplementary Estimates provide information on spending authority that Parliament will be asked to approve during the fiscal year.

c. In Canada, individual departments and agencies also produce Reports on Plans and Priorities (RPPs) and The RPPs are typically tabled soon after the Main Estimates and show an organization’s priorities and planned results for the next three years. DPRs, tabled in the fall, are accounts of results achieved during the most recent fiscal year.

d. In Canada, Departmental Performance Reports (DPRs) are an integral part of the Estimates process as specified in the Parliament of Canada Act.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to centre vs. periphery choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. There are a many ways in which the perspective of “the centre” of government differs from those of other parts of government.

b. The centre vs. periphery dynamic is seen in how national vs. regional interests play out around the Cabinet table.

c. The centre vs. periphery dynamic is seen in how officials in staff positions interact with those in line positons.

d. The centre vs. periphery dynamic is seen in how central agencies interact with operating ministries.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to guardians vs. spenders choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The guardian-spender conception of an enduring dynamic within government was articulated in 1964 by Aaron Wildavsky.

b. Participants in the budgetary process tend to be either guardians of the treasury or advocates of program spending.

c. The guardian vs. spender roles are attached to institutional positions with guardians from central agencies controlling the budget and spending advocates from program agencies.

d. Successful prime ministers try to design systems to downplay the guardian vs spender dynamic within government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to staff vs. line positions choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The differences in roles and perspectives between staff (usually at headquarters) and line (often in regional offices) are among the most enduring institutional dynamics in government.

b. People in staff positions try to encourage those in line positions to take more initiative to respond in a timely way to variations in local circumstances.

c. People in staff positions try to look at the big picture and how all the pieces fit together.

d. People in line positions resent attempts by staff analysts to impose standardized processes to which all units must follow.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to regionalism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Regionalism is the distinctive local character of a geographic area, or to a people’s perception of and identification with such places.

b. In Canada, there was no continuous, expansive national experience with the land. One patch would fill up, then people would emigrate to a new area. Different patches were settled at different times by people of different backgrounds who depended on different technologies and economies.

c. In Canada, one of the most successful tools for combatting regionalism was the imposition of high tariffs on U.S. goods which allowed Canadian manufacturing to flourish and connect with new buyers from across the country.

d. Many political scientists have observed that Canadian politics is more regional than in many other advanced democracies.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to regional minister choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In Canada, regional minister is a term used for a minister within a Cabinet who has explicit responsibilities pertaining to a geographic region, such as a province.

b. The institution of regional ministers has a long history in Canada, and has been studied by scholars such as Herman Bakvis who have described how the last government of Pierre Trudeau revived and formalized the regional minister system within the context of cabinet decision-making.

c. The regional minister system in the government of Justin Trudeau operates in a similar way to that of Pierre Trudeau.

d. Regional ministers tend to have the most authority in regions that are most dependent on government spending.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to Cabinet solidarity and secrecy choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In the Westminster form of government, a minister is not expected to seek Cabinet agreement on a decision provided the legislative authority for the decision lies clearly within the minister’s portfolio.

b. Regardless of which ministers (or how many) are involved in making a decision, the Cabinet operates on the principle of Cabinet solidarity meaning that all Cabinet ministers must publicly defend all Cabinet policies or resign.

c. In addition to the practice of solidarity, the Cabinet also operates under the principle of Cabinet secrecy or confidentiality such that Cabinet ministers are not to disclose information about Cabinet deliberations in order to protect Cabinet deliberations (and possible discord) from being exploited by Opposition parties and the media.

d. In Canada, Cabinet documents are not normally made public for a period of 20 years.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to speaking truth to power choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Speaking truth to power is a term used to capture the role of public servants in a Westminster system of government to advise the political executive without fear or favour.

b. Speaking truth to power is a concept with little direct relevance to public servants who are not involved in the process of preparing advice for Ministers.

c. Speaking truth to power is an obligation to tell people not what they want to hear, but rather what they need to hear.

d. Speaking truth to power includes recognizing when the argument is over and not to keep on fighting after the issue has been decided.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to the policy advisory systems choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The policy advisory system comprises an interlocking set of actors with a unique configuration in each sector and jurisdiction, who provide information, knowledge, and recommendations for action to policymakers.

b. In modern Westminster governments the executive advisory landscape is a complex web of policy advisory sources, many of which exist outside of government.

c. Given the number of advisory sources, it is useful to conceive of partisan advisers as one component in an overall policy advisory system.

d. Sources of policy advice over which the government has relatively high control include statutory authorities, community groups, and trade unions.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to the role of public servants in policy advising choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Jonathan Craft, drawing on Michel Prince, posits two idealized models of the role of public servants in advising government on policy matters: 1) speaking truth to power directly to ministers and 2) speaking truths with multiple actors of influence.

b. In the speaking truth to power model, the role of the public servant is that of an active participant in policy discussion inside and outside government; whereas in the speaking truths with multiple actors model, the role of the public servant is that of a confidential adviser inside government and a neutral observer outside government.

c. In the speaking truth to power model, public servants are knowledgeable executives with policy-sector expertise and history; whereas in the speaking truths with multiple actors model, public servants are generalist managers with expertise in decision processes and systems.

d. In the speaking truth to power model, the nature of the policy advice provided by public servants is candid and confident given in a neutral and detached manner; whereas in the speaking truths with multiple actors model, public servants provide relatively more guarded advice in a more compliant or preordained fashion.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Cabinet decision-making system choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A sound Cabinet decision-making manages the flow of information and ideas to help secure agreement among ministers on the government’s priorities and to provide an effective forum for ministerial debate on issues of general interest and for expression of diverse regional interests.

b. There are no ideal models of Cabinet decision-making that exist independently from the people who use the system, and the circumstances in which they work.

c. The undisputed constant is that Cabinet, and its related structures are above all the Prime Minister’s own instruments for achieving his government’s goals. They must be both functional and comfortable for the Prime Minister, as well as for Cabinet colleagues and the officials who serve them.

d. Given the importance of the Cabinet decision-making system to the maintenance of Cabinet solidarity, many Canadian prime ministers have used a consensus-based process to establish the system that best suits their government. This is one of the most important tasks following the swearing in of Ministers and typically involves discussions with key ministers and at Cabinet over the first few weeks of government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Cabinet documents choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Cabinet documents are documents that, if disclosed, would reveal any consideration or deliberation of Cabinet, or otherwise prejudice the confidentiality of Cabinet considerations, deliberations or operations.

b. Cabinet documents include submissions, submitted or proposed to be submitted to Cabinet; Cabinet agenda, notice of meetings and business lists for meetings; and minutes and decisions of Cabinet.

c. Cabinet documents do not include appendices to Cabinet submissions that consist purely of analysis of publicly available material and which do not reach recommendations.

d. The instructions for the preparation of Cabinet materials for the Government of Canada are publicly available on the Privy Council Office website.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to accounting officer choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Accounting officer is a designation for the senior public servant in a department that has long been used in the United Kingdom and was adopted in 2006 by the Government of Canada as part of the Federal Accountability Act.

b. Accounting officers in the Government of Canada have a legal obligation to appear before committees of the Senate and House of Commons and answer questions on the management responsibilities set out in section 16.4 of the Financial Administration Act.

c. The legal requirements of accounting officers to answer to the House of Commons relieves ministers of some of the obligations previously associated with the doctrine of ministerial responsibility.

d. Where, under the process set out in the Financial Administration Act, the accounting officer seeks written guidance from the Secretary of the Treasury Board for an unresolved disagreement between the accounting officer and the Minister related to the interpretation or application of a Treasury Board policy, directive or standard, such guidance should be sought through a letter from the accounting officer to the Secretary setting out the issue in a clear and balanced manner, and a copy of this letter should be provided to the Minister.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to the political aide choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Political aides, also called political staffers, are employees who are hired and fired by the minister, or the prime minister, whose salaries and benefits are paid from government revenues, but who are not part of the regular public service and are permitted to be explicitly political.

b. Political aides are able to draft speeches, press releases and other documents that conform to the overall political direction of the government.

c. Political aides provide advice to the minister about pending policy matters or cabinet or parliamentary business that must be managed in accordance with the government’s political environment.

d. Most functions performed by political aides could, from a constitutional and legal perspective, be assigned to non-partisan public servants but it would be more costly to do so.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to the dynamics between political executive and the civil service choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The political executive directs the government of the day, while the civil service, like the Crown itself, enjoys continuity through transitions of government.

b. The political executive and the civil service may be seen as at once interdependent and independent entities within government.

c. The political executive is usually in a greater hurry to produce results than the civil service.

d. Given that “good policy makes good politics” there is usually very little difference in the policy advice developed by political advisors and that developed by public service advisors.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to the constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service holds that public servants are appointed and promoted on the basis of merit rather than of party affiliation or contributions.

b. The constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service holds that public servants do not engage in partisan political activities and do not express publicly their personal views on government policies or administration.

c. The constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service holds that public servants provide forthright and objective advice to their political masters in private and in confidence; in return, political executives protect the anonymity of public servants by publicly accepting responsibility for departmental decisions.

d. The constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service holds that public servants execute policy decisions loyally, irrespective of the philosophy and programs of the party in power and regardless of their personal opinions; as a result, public servants enjoy security of tenure during good behaviour and satisfactory performance

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.16. Among statements a-d pertaining to the ministerial responsibility choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The principle of ministerial responsibility holds that civil servants carry out the minister’s orders, or act in accordance with the minister’s policy, it is for the minister and not for the civil servants to take any blame.

b. Ministerial responsibility means that a minister must resign if a serious and avoidable error occurs within the government portfolio which the minister heads.

c. Traditionally, ministerial responsibility has been viewed as the most important and most contentious of Westminster government conventions. But it is rarely defined, and this lack of a shared understanding of its requirements permits confusing, creative, and misleading interpretations of its meaning.

d. The constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service is part of what is sometimes referred to in the public administration literature as the iron triangle of conventions consisting of political neutrality, ministerial responsibility, and public service anonymity.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.17. Among statements a-d pertaining to the political neutrality of public servants choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Political neutrality is a constitutional convention which provides that public servants should avoid activities likely to impair, or seem to impair, their political impartiality or the political impartiality of the public service.

b. The constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service is part of what is sometimes referred to in the public administration literature as the ‘iron triangle’ of conventions consisting of political neutrality, ministerial responsibility, and public service anonymity.

c. The convention of political neutrality does not apply to public service unions and it is widely accepted that if a public service union actively supports a political party it does not impede the ability of individual union members to perform their jobs in a politically neutral manner.

d. The fact that political neutrality of public servants is not part of the written constitution does not detract from their centrality to Canada’s constitutional system.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.18. Among statements a-d pertaining to the public service anonymity choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public service anonymity is the convention that ministers answer to Parliament and to the public for government actions without naming the public servants who provided advice or who carried out the administrative action.

b. The constitutional convention of public service anonymity has been strengthened by the clear rules set out in legislation on the duties of the accounting officer.

c. The anonymity of the civil service is linked to two concepts: permanence and neutrality. Civil servants, many of whom remain in their jobs whilst serving numerous governments, are thus likely to have to give advice to governments of different political parties, who may have different attitudes to policy. The advice they give needs to be given to ministers both freely and also without fear of adverse public or political reactions and without fear of future career damage.

d. The anonymity of the civil service is linked to the concept of ministerial responsibility, whereby the convention is for the minister to accept responsibility for their actions and decisions and those of their departments.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.05.19. Among statements a-d pertaining to the UK Civil Service Skills and Knowledge Framework choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. UK civil service policy professionals are expected to be able to consider and balance evidence, politics, and delivery at whatever stage the policy is at.

b. UK civil service policy professionals are expected to be able to understand and manage the political context by monitoring the political context and giving timely, honest, objective and impartial advice and recommendations to respond to the changing context in which Ministers operate.

c. UK civil service policy professionals are expected to be able to respond to the change in relationship with ministers at different stages of policy development; balancing the political view with other considerations.

d. UK civil service policy professionals are expected to be able to support ministers’ engagement with parliament and enable public accountability in their area.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to federalism choose one that is invalid if all but one are valid or choose e if non are valid.

a. Federalism is a political system in which government power and responsibility is divided between a federal legislature and a number of state or provincial legislatures.

b. Tensions between “local autonomy” and “central authority” are inherent in federal all states but these tensions have since the 1950s been less pronounced in Canada than in other federations such as the United States, Germany, and Australia.

c. Federalism is one of the three institutional pillars of Canadian government (the other two being parliamentary or Cabinet government and, since 1982, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms) that coexist in a dynamic tension because each embodies a somewhat different conception of democracy.

d. Differences of opinion about the nature of federalism have been sharper in Canada over a longer period than in most federations, and no consensus has ever been achieved regarding the appropriate relationship between the two levels of government.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.06.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Forum of Federations choose one that is invalid if all but one are valid or choose e if non are valid.

a. The Forum of Federations is a United Nations body created to discuss issues of interest to federal states and most of the world’s federations are members.

b. The Forum of Federations is a learning network concerned with promoting intergovernmental learning on governance challenges in multi-level democracies.

c. The Forum of Federations is an international governance organization founded by Canada and funded by nine other partner governments – Australia, Brazil, Ethiopia, Germany, India, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan and Switzerland.

d. The Forum is not an advocacy organization and doesn’t advocate for any particular structure of government.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.06.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to multilevel governance choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Multilevel governance takes place in international institutions like the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, where decisions are made at both the national and supranational level.

b. Although the idea of multilevel governance was initially developed around the European Union, it has been applied in other areas of study such as in the study of federal states in comparative politics.

c. Multilevel governance sees European policy as the result of a constant coordination across different territorial levels (including a supranational, national, regional and local level) where the relationship between these different tiers is characterized by overlap and interdependence.

d. Multilevel governance occurs when experts from several tiers of government share the task of making regulations and forming policy, usually in conjunction with relevant interest groups.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to multiple identities choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Multiple identities is one of the underpinnings of federalism in that citizens can be members of both a national community, ideally embodied in the national government, and provincial communities reflected in their provincial governments.

b. Federalism is about the coexistence of multiple loyalties and identities.

c. Federalism is about divided and shared authority.

d. Federalism is about self-rule and shared rule.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to distribution of powers choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Distribution of powers in Canada means the division of legislative powers and responsibilities between the federal and provincial governments outlined in the Constitution Act, 1867.

b. The history of Canadian federalism is basically an account of disputes over the distribution of powers.

c. From the 1880s until the 1930s federal powers increased relatively, largely because the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council respected the centralist intentions of many (but not all) of the Constitution’s creators, favouring national authority in its interpretation of the Constitution Act, 1867.

d. The Supreme Court of Canada has in its judgements has strengthened the legislative powers of the federal government in some areas.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to fiscal imbalance choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Fiscal imbalance occurs when government spending is consistently higher than government revenue.

b. Vertical fiscal imbalance is the imbalance between the national and provincial levels of government (for example, when the responsibilities of provinces are disproportionately large compared with their share of the revenues).

c. Vertical fiscal imbalance can be remedied by a transfer of responsibilities from one level to another or by transfer of revenues.

d. Horizontal fiscal imbalance is the imbalance among the provinces themselves and it can be mitigated through equalization payments.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to equalization formula choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Canada’s equalization formula as the mathematical formula to determine which provinces are eligible for the transfer and the amount of each eligible province’s payment.

b. Equalization helps to ensure that Canadians residing in provinces have access to a reasonably similar level of provincial government services at reasonably similar levels of taxation, regardless of which province they call home.

c. On a per capita basis, Canada’s equalization formula assesses a province’s ability to generate own-source revenues and compares that fiscal capacity to the average fiscal capacity for all provinces.

d. Canada’s equalization formula transfers provincial tax revenues of provinces in a with a higher than average fiscal capacity to provinces with a lower than average fiscal capacity.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to classical federalism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Classical federalism is a term used to describe the way the Canadian federation operated for most of the period from Confederation to the Great Depression.

b. The end of World War II and the return of growth in resource revenues in the 1960s produced a better balance in fiscal capacities between federal and provincial governments and enabled a return to classical federalism after the mid-1960s.

c. With important exceptions, such as battles between Ontario and Ottawa over resources and timber exports, intergovernmental conflict in the era of classical federalism was relatively muted.

d. The approach to federalism followed by the government of Stephen Harper bore much resemblance to classical federalism.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to cooperative federalism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The term cooperative federalism is used to describe the way the Canadian federation operated in the post-war period to the mid-1960s.

b. The era of cooperative federalism saw dramatic growth in the federal government’s responsibility for the basic income security system through unemployment insurance, pensions, and family allowances.

c. During the post-war years when Maurice Duplessis was premier (1944-1959), the Quebec government agreed to the expansion of federal programs provided it had the flexibility to accommodate the demands of the Catholic Church and other advocacy groups to have the provincial government to deliver integrated social programs along the lines of those being introduced by social democratic governments in France and Germany.

d. In provinces outside Quebec, during the era of cooperative federalism most of the expansion of federal responsibility occurred without major federal-provincial tension.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to competitive federalism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The term competitive federalism is used to describe the way the Canadian federation operated in the late 1960s to the early 1980s.

b. The principal motivation underlying competitive federalism was the recognition of the need to make Canada more competitive internationally and to have governments operate more efficiently.

c. Competitive federalism refers to several changes from the postwar cooperative model: the escalation of interregional and intergovernmental conflict, stronger pressures for decentralization, and expansion by both levels of government into new policy fields.

d. Competitive federalism increased the tension between province-building and nation-building and led to greater efforts by both levels of government to mobilize their populations around competing images of federalism and how it should work.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to constitutional federalism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The term constitutional federalism is used to describe the attempts in the 1980s and early 1990s to reform federalism through amendments to the 1982 constitutional settlement.

b. The 1982 constitutional settlement was a compromise: the nation-centred view was reflected in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, to be enforced by the Supreme Court; the province-centred view was reflected in the amending formula, which ensured a strong provincial role in future amendment.

c. The advent of the Charter had shifted the constitutional discourse: now it was less about governing the relations among governments than a vehicle for popular sovereignty, defining the relations between citizens and governments, and the constitutional agenda broadened vastly.

d. The constitutional changes made in the 15 years following the 1982 settlement, while contentious at the time, dealt with enough of the key outstanding issues to permit a relatively benign framework for federalism so far in the 21st Century.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to collaborative federalism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The term collaborative federalism was used by the Canadian federal government and many provincial governments to describe efforts since the mid-1990s to improve the operation of the federation.

b. Intergovernmental collaboration since the mid-1990s has been helped by “constitutional fatigue” and by the fact that challenges of economic competitiveness and deficit control produced a demands for governments to work together.

c. The first major product of the collaborative federalism era was the 1994 Agreement on Internal Trade which was intended to address long-standing concerns about the strength of the Canadian economic union through intergovernmental collaboration.

d. The second major product of the collaborative federalism era was the 1999 Social Union Framework Agreement which included such commitments as equality of treatment across the country, access by all Canadians to adequate social programs wherever they live, the reduction of barriers to mobility among provinces, and greater transparency and accountability. For its part, Ottawa agreed that when using conditional transfers, it would “proceed in a cooperative manner that is respectful of the provincial and territorial governments and their priorities.”

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to asymmetrical federalism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Asymmetrical federalism refers to a federal system of government in which power is unevenly divided between states such that some states have greater responsibilities or more autonomy than others.

b. An example of asymmetrical federalism in Canada is Quebec’s criminal justice system where, because Quebec operates under its own set of criminal statutes, Quebec rather than Ottawa makes judicial appointments to Quebec criminal courts.

c. An example of asymmetrical federalism in Canada is that Quebec operates its own pension plan, while the other nine provinces are covered by the federal/provincial Canada Pension Plan. Quebec has extensive authority over employment and immigration issues within its borders, matters that are handled by the federal government in all the other provinces

d. An example of asymmetrical federalism in Canada can be found in the terms of the September 2004 federal-provincial-territorial agreement on health care where Quebec will apply its own wait time reduction plan in accordance with the objectives, standards and criteria established by the relevant Quebec authorities and that funding made available by the Government of Canada will be used by the Government of Quebec to implement its own plan for renewing Quebec’s health system.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Council of the Federation choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Canada’s Prime Minister and 13 provincial and territorial Premiers are members of the Council of the Federation.

b. The Council of the Federation is supported by a small Secretariat located in Ottawa.

c. The Council of the Federation’s objectives include the promotion of interprovincial-territorial cooperation and closer ties between Premiers, to ultimately strengthen Canada.

d. The Council of the Federation’s objectives include fostering meaningful relations between governments based on respect for the Constitution and recognition of the diversity within the federation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to the intergovernmental relations choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In Canada, intergovernmental relations typically refer to the relations among the various governments within a country and in Canada they usually refer to federal-provincial-territorial relations.

b. Canada, like most federations, has not formally anchored its intergovernmental structures and processes in its Constitution so that intergovernmental mechanisms have tended to evolve in response to changing political dynamics.

c. Intergovernmental relations is becoming less important in Canada as government’s proportion of overall economic activity is declining.

d. Intergovernmental relations remain important because central and provincial government activities are intertwined in a pattern of shared and overlapping responsibilities, shared authority and shared funding in many areas of public policy.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.16. Among statements a-d pertaining to the multilateral collaboration with diffuse reciprocity model choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Multilateral collaboration with diffuse reciprocity is characterized by a high level of federal-provincial-territorial engagement based on equality of orders and norms of co-ownership of policy field through strong intergovernmental institutions.

b. Multilateral collaboration with diffuse reciprocity cannot work at the level of officials if there is not a commitment to collaborate at the political level.

c. One requirement for multilateral collaboration with diffuse reciprocity is a high-level of trust among the actors involved such that there is a genuine commitment and acceptance of a set of consultative norms.

d. Collaborative intergovernmental relations involve a demonstrable commitment to the principle of diffuse reciprocity: that is, to an outcome that will eventually yield a rough equivalency of benefits for all parties over time.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.17. Among statements a-d pertaining to the bilateral negotiation with specific reciprocity model choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Bilateral negotiation with specific reciprocity is characterized by federal-single province dynamic, with joint ownership of a policy field based on equality of orders, but with recognition of the unique federal-provincial relationship.

b. The actual processes and institutions of relations in the bilateral model facilitate government-to-government negotiation and cooperation.

c. The outputs of the bilateral model, often bilateral agreements, tend to focus on the particularities of this relationship, while seeking to realize an immediate equivalency of interests on a quid-pro-quo basis.

d. Bilateral negotiation with specific reciprocity has rarely worked in Canada.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.18. Among statements a-d pertaining to unilateral action with particular interests model choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Unilateral action with particular interests by one government or another is becoming more prevalent in Canada, partly due to increased fiscal constraints and shorter news cycles.

b. The unilateral action with particular interests model is characterized by a strong sense that a government can legitimately act on its own in a policy area, even if it impacts another government without consultation.

c. Unilateral action can take two broad forms: governments undertaking the development and implementation of policy in an area understood as largely within their exclusive responsibility; or, one order of government unilaterally taking action understanding that it will significantly impact the other order of government.

c. The line between the two aspects of unilateralism is not as clear as it may seem: despite the formally exclusive nature of most federal-provincial areas of responsibility, there is widespread recognition in practice that there is considerable overlap.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.06.19. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat is an institution dedicated to supporting senior level intergovernmental conferences.

b. The Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat is an agency of the federal and provincial governments, funded by both level of governments and its staff includes federal and provincial/territorial public servants and, as such, acts as a neutral intergovernmental body.

c. The Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat is headquartered in Moncton and not in a federal or provincial capital to ensure impartiality.

d. The primary objective of the Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat is to relieve client departments in virtually every major sector of intergovernmental activity, of the numerous technical and administrative tasks associated with the planning and conduct of multilateral conferences.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term local government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A local government is an administrative body for a small geographic area, such as a city, town, county, or state.

b. In Canada, the term local government does not appear in the Constitution Act; the closest reference is found in section 92 (8), where the authority to make laws relating to “Municipal Institutions in the Province” is placed under the exclusive jurisdiction of provincial legislatures.

c. Because of the high demands placed on provincial budgets by municipal institutions some provinces have petitioned the federal government to assume the responsibility for municipal institutions in their province.

d. All Canadian provinces have enacted laws that provide for the existence of municipalities (in other words, corporate entities with defined territories and delegated legal authority to enact bylaws relating to a range of government functions generally considered to be local in nature) and such entities are generally designated as cities, towns, villages, counties, or townships.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to local government functions choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The functions performed by local governments differ but everywhere in Canada they include regulation of the built environment and provision of services to real property, including local roads and sidewalks, and the provision of recreational and cultural facilities such as parks, community halls, and public libraries.

b. In more urban areas, local governments provide public transit, regulate taxis, purify and distribute piped water, and provide for sewage collection and treatment.

c. Urban municipalities generally have a responsibility for policing, although there are varying mechanisms in different provinces to insulate police from the direct control of municipal councils.

d. As part of a municipal financing pilot project, several cities in Canada have recently been granted authority to collect up to 2% income tax on business and individuals located within their boundaries.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to provincial controls over local government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Because municipal issues tend to be contentious and because provincial government offers more opportunities for good news announcements, provincial politicians tend to keep themselves removed from local government issues.

b. Under Canada’s constitution, provincial legislatures can do whatever they want with local governments.

c. There is in every province at least one general law that establishes the basic rules and structures of municipal government. Such laws are frequently amended as a result of particular issues and problems, many of which were unforeseen when the legislation was originally approved.

d. Some major Canadian cities – Toronto, Montreal, Winnipeg, and Vancouver, for example – are governed by provincial laws specifically tailored for their own purposes. Although such laws give no more protection to cities against arbitrary provincial legislation than is available under general municipal legislation, they usually provide for more functional authority than is generally found in smaller places.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to provincial ministers of municipal affairs one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Each province has a cabinet minister designated to look after the municipal system within the province, responsible for ensuring that legislation is in place and implemented so that municipalities can do their jobs effectively, efficiently, and democratically.

b. Because municipalities are legally creatures of the provinces, they are, in effect, extensions of the provincial government and, although rarely used in practice, the municipal affairs minister in most provinces can give direct instructions to a mayor or municipal council on any matter within the municipality’s jurisdiction.

c. In some provinces the legislation gives the municipal affairs minister considerable policy authority to influence what municipalities do; in others there is much less in the way of central supervision.

d. There is considerable variation in the number of provincial public servants who report to the municipal affairs minister. These and other matters of common concern are discussed at annual meetings of Provincial and Territorial Ministers Responsible for Local Government that are organized by the Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to municipal elections one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In Canada there is broad support for nonpartisanship at the municipal level even if it is generally understood that political parties are often at work behind the scenes.

b. Support for nonpartisan elections can be traced back to the North American urban reform movement that aimed at eliminating the municipal corruption associated with party-based urban political machines and introducing professional management to city governments.

c. None of the occasional attempts to introduce political parties to municipal politics in Canada has been successful.

d. The terms of office for municipal councilors have been shorted in recent years, in many cases to two years, the justification being that municipal councils need to seek reaffirmation of their positions in a rapidly changing urban context.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to municipal finance one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Municipal finance focuses on the revenues and expenditures of municipalities, where revenues are secured from local taxes and other local revenues and from provincial and federal grants.

b. Municipalities are not generally allowed to run deficits in their operating budgets. Borrowing is typically for capital assets and the debt is amortized approximately over the life of the asset.

c. Taxes levied on real property (land and buildings) are the traditional and principal source of municipal tax revenue. Because of the importance and difficulty of establishing accurate and uniform assessments, all provinces have in recent years either assumed complete responsibility for assessment or imposed careful supervision over municipal assessment.

d. Property taxes include taxes for both general municipal purposes and schools, which in some provinces are levied directly by school boards and in others by the municipalities. Government grants include grants for education as well as for general municipal purposes.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to machinery of municipal government one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The basic structure of municipal government is simpler than that found at the provincial and federal levels because there are no separate legislative and executive branches of government at the municipal level.

b. Municipal responsibilities are concentrated in the elected council and are carried out by appointed staff who are mostly organized into a number of functionally specialized departments.

c. Municipal councils consist of a head (known as warden or chair in counties and other upper tier governments, as mayor in cities and towns, and as reeve, chair, or overseer in villages and townships) and a widely varying number of councillors.

d. Most Canadian cities use the “council manger system” separating the policy and administrative activities of the municipality and involves the appointment of a professional administrator (the manager) to whom is delegated complete responsibility for administering the programs of the municipality, including coordination and supervision of all staff.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to municipal special purpose bodies one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Municipal governments include a number of special purpose boards or commissions that these include library boards, water utility commissions, transit authorities, police commissions, parks boards and conservation authorities.

b. Most of these special purpose bodies are created by provincial governments, and provincial statutes outline the procedures for the appointment of members.

c. Most of these bodies enjoy varying degrees of independence from municipal jurisdiction, although municipalities must provide a considerable proportion of their funds.

d. Because special purpose  bodies fall under the control of both the provincial and municipal governments, it is difficult for the public to know just who is responsible and for what.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to municipal special purpose bodies one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Municipal governments include a number of special purpose boards or commissions that these include library boards, water utility commissions, transit authorities, police commissions, parks boards and conservation authorities.

b. Most of these special purpose bodies are created by provincial governments, and provincial statutes outline the procedures for the appointment of members.

c. Most of these bodies enjoy varying degrees of independence from municipal jurisdiction, although municipalities must provide a considerable proportion of their funds.

d. Because special purpose  bodies fall under the control of both the provincial and municipal governments, it is difficult for the public to know just who is responsible and for what.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to municipal organizations one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Municipal organizations are associations of municipalities within a province (state) or a country.

b. The existence of these associations points to an obvious tension in the status of municipalities within the Canadian political universe. On the one hand they are clearly elected governments, having to deal daily with interest groups clamouring for lower taxes, a cleaner environment, better roads, and more housing for people who cannot afford market prices. On the other hand, from the perspective of the federal and provincial governments, municipalities make their case as they themselves were just another interest group.

c. In Ontario, there is an Ontario Small Urban Municipalities (OSUM) and a Rural Ontario Municipal Association (ROMA) to articulate the interests of smaller cities and towns.

d. In Ontario there is a Metropolitan Centres of Ontario Group (MCOG) to articulate the interests of the larger cities.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to developers, citizens, and local government one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Because all municipal councils set policy for local land use and infrastructure the people with the greatest financial stakes in local politics are the people who make their living from building.

b. At its core, Canadian municipal politics often seems little more than a constant battle between developers and citizens groups, sometimes with developers in the ascendancy (usually when people are worried about employment and economic growth) and sometimes with citizens groups apparently able to veto almost any project that is physically near to mobilized residents.

c. Because municipalities are the level of government physically closest to most citizens, it is often assumed that citizens identify more with the local level than with the provincial and federal but the harsh reality is that Canadian nonpartisan municipal government is often difficult to understand, technical in its functional scope, and generally not covered well by the media.

d. The combination of nonpartisan politics and generally low voter interest means that highly motivated groups of mobilized citizens have considerable power to influence municipal councils.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to administrative tribunals and municipal government one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Many provincial statutes, especially those concerned with land-use planning, provide opportunities for aggrieved local citizens to appeal to a provincial minister or to a provincial administrative tribunal.

b. In Ontario, there is an extremely powerful tribunal, the Ontario Municipal Board, and as long as it maintains its power, Ontario municipalities will be among the weakest in North America when it comes to their ability to control their own land use.

c. In order to regain their control over land use planning it would be relatively easy for mayors and citizens groups to persuade the provincial government to reform the Ontario Municipal Board, despite the interest in maintaining the status quo expected from developers and from the lawyers and consultants involved in Ontario Municipal Board hearings.

d. Administrative tribunals exist for local government functions other than land-use planning. For example, most provinces have some form of tribunal that regulates municipal police services, hears appeals from police officers about disciplinary issues, and investigates province-wide policing issues (investigating citizen complaints against particular officers is usually carried out by yet another body).

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to multilevel governance in cities one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Multilevel governance as a mode of policy making that involves complex interactions among multiple levels of government and social forces.

b. Multilevel governance as it has emerged in Canada’s big cities rests on the premise that the policy concerns of nested layers of authority in the Canadian federal system are interdependent and thus require ongoing multilevel coordination.

c. Many of the multilevel policy successes hinge on the development of collaboration agreements or collaborative institutions that limit inter-agent transaction costs and help manage the agenda instability that so often threatens the sustainability of multilevel policy initiatives.

d. As multilevel governance evolves in Canada there will be little or no need for constitutional changes or dramatic provincial measures to transfer more formal authority to cities.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.07.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to project-based vs. program based federal involvement in urban affairs choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The federal government could contribute significantly to improving the quality of multilevel governance if it put more emphasis on its project-based involvement in urban affairs than its program-based involvement.

b. Project-based intervention involves the federal government helping to develop and fund a major urban project on a one-off basis, usually when local elites in a major city team up with provincial officials or local-area federal MPs to lobby the federal government for assistance with a high-profile urban development or mega-event initiative.

c. Program-based federal involvement in urban affairs typically arises in policy fields that are at least partly in federal jurisdiction, but present policy problems requiring spatially differentiated responses. In these cases, the federal government develops policy parameters that embody a number of high-level goals. These are then implemented through the distribution of federal funding to decentralized agents – either to provincial governments which in turn transfer the funding to local agents on a project basis, or directly to municipalities or local societal agents whose projects meet the federal policy goals.

d. The federal government’s involvement in multilevel urban affairs is often project-based which heightens the prospects that short-term political or electoral goals will drive federal urban initiatives, lowers the prospects for sustained collaboration across levels of government, and produces an unstable multilevel policy environment.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to cultural differences choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Cultural differences include all the ways in which customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of social groups differ.

b. Given that one of fundamental roles of any system of governance is resolving differences in preferences and claims, the cultural differences associated with an increasingly diverse society can be viewed as a governance challenge.

c. Although there are substantial value differences among cultures, scholars such as Isiah Berlin have been able to demonstrate that the realization of one set of values need not involve sacrifice of other values.

d. There is evidence that members of different cultures think differently, partly because different cultures introduce people to different kinds of concepts.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between ethnicity and culture choose the one that is most valid or choose e if none are valid.

a. Ethnicity refers to people who identify themselves based on common ancestral, cultural and social experiences; culture refers to the beliefs, values and norms of a group of people.

b. Ethnicity refers to the values, beliefs and norms of a group of people; culture refers to a group of people that share common physical characteristics.

c. Ethnicity and culture can be used interchangeably.

d. Ethnicity refers to people who identify themselves based on common ancestral, cultural and social experiences; culture refers to individuals sharing common ancestral and social experiences based on country of origin.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.08.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to colonialism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Colonialism is the same as imperialism.

b. Colonialism is involves the subjugation of one people to another.

c. Colonialism as a broad concept that refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s.

d. The legitimacy of colonialism has been a longstanding concern for political and moral philosophers in the Western tradition. Political theorists have struggled with the difficulty of reconciling ideas about justice and natural law with the practice of European sovereignty over non-Western peoples. One way of reconciling those apparently opposed principles was the argument known as the “civilizing mission,” which suggested that a temporary period of political dependence or tutelage was necessary in order for “uncivilized” societies to advance to the point where they were capable of sustaining liberal institutions and self-government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to sexual orientation choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Sexual orientation as an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions to men, women, or both sexes. Sexual orientation also refers to a person’s sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions.

b. Research over several decades has demonstrated that sexual orientation ranges along a continuum, from exclusive attraction to the other sex to exclusive attraction to the same sex.

c. Sexual orientation is usually discussed in terms of three categories: heterosexual (having emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions to members of the other sex), gay/lesbian (having emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions to members of one’s own sex), and bisexual (having emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions to both men and women).

d. The National Center for Health Statistics issued a report in 2014 providing national estimates for indicators of health-related behaviors by sexual orientation using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) of 34,557 American adults aged 18 and over. In the survey 8.0 percent of American adults identified as gay or lesbian and 3.5 percent identified as bisexual.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between sex and gender choose the one that is most valid or choose e if none are valid.

a. Sex and gender are used interchangeably and are defined as the same thing.

b. Sex is an individual’s biological status and is determined by a number of biological factors; gender is the attitudes and behaviours that determine an individual’s biological sex.

c. Sex is an individual’s biological status and is determined by a number of biological factors; gender is the attitudes and behaviours that society assigns to people of a certain sex.

d. Sex refers to an individual’s biological status and is determined by a number of biological factors; gender refers to the attitudes and behaviours that society assigns to a particular sex and can never deviate from the assigned sex.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.08.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to religion and religious practices choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Societies, if well governed, can avoid value conflict over religion.

b. Religion can be described as a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs.

c. Religious differences require societies to deal with irreconcilable value conflict. Isaiah Berlin argued that the world that we encounter in ordinary experience is one in which we are faced with choices between many ends equally ultimate, and claims equally absolute, the realization of some of which must inevitably involve the sacrifice of others.

d. Will Kymlicka has observed that prior to the Second World War, ethno-cultural and religious diversity in Canada and other liberal states was characterized by illiberal and undemocratic relations between conqueror and conquered; colonizer and colonized; master and slave; settler and indigenous; racialized and unmarked; normalized and deviant; orthodox and heretic; civilized and primitive; ally and enemy.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to prejudice choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Prejudice is often defined as an unfair and unreasonable opinion or feeling, especially when formed without thought or knowledge.

b. Many leading psychologists see prejudice as being natural, often rational, and often even moral.

c. Psychological evidence indicates that prejudice flows from in-group vs. out-group feelings and virtually everyone feels a pull towards their in-group.

d. The psychological evidence to date suggests that prejudice cannot be substantially affected by appeals to people’s empathy, by rational argument, or by legal constraints.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to cognitive bias choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In common usage, the term bias means an inclination or prejudice for or against one person or group, especially in a way considered to be unfair.

b. A psychological definition of cognitive bias is an involuntary pattern of thinking that produces distorted perceptions of people, surroundings, and situations around us.

c. Cognitive biases serve as mental shortcuts.

d. Cognitive biases were likely helpful in evolutionary terms by inducing quick reactions when people had limited mental processing capabilities due to lack of time or lack of knowledge about a subject or situation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.09. Among the statements a-e pertaining the distinction between bias and prejudice choose the one that is least valid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Prejudice is a form of bias.

b. Bias is a more general term that refers to a tendency; prejudice is an unfair or unreasonable opinion.

c. Although bias can be partly based on factual observation, prejudice comes from elements of bias that have no basis in reality.

d. Bias can lead to prejudice and forming stereotypes.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to discrimination choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Discrimination is an action or a decision that treats a person or a group negatively for reasons such as their race, age or disability.

b. Discrimination is usually based on group stereotypes and stereotype beliefs about group characteristics bear almost no relation to empirical reality.

c. Legal means to combat discrimination are found in human rights codes and laws. For example, the Canadian Human Rights Act, outlaws seven discriminatory practices (e.g., denying someone goods, services, facilities, or accommodation) for any of the following eleven grounds: race; national or ethnic origin; colour; religion; age; sex; sexual orientation; marital status; family status; disability; and a conviction for which a pardon has been granted or a record suspended.

d. The Ontario Human Rights Code includes a similar list of grounds to the Canadian Human Rights Act, with the notable difference of including gender identity and gender expression. The grounds for discrimination in Ontario are: race; colour; ancestry; place of origin; citizenship; ethnic origin; creed (religion); receipt of social assistance (housing only); disability; age; marital status; family status; sex or gender (includes being pregnant, sexual harassment); sexual orientation; gender identity; gender expression; and record of offenses (employment only, must have been pardoned).

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.11. Among the statements a-e pertaining the distinction between discrimination and intersectionality choose the one that is least valid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Discrimination refers to the unjust treatment of different categories of people; intersectionality is a combination of different forms of discrimination.

b. Ageism, sexism, disablism and racism are all types of discrimination; an example of intersectionality would be a combination of racism and sexism against minority women.

c. Discrimination refers to the unjust treatment of different categories of people; intersectionality includes the study of situations in which people are doubly or even triply disadvantaged.

d. Discrimination refers to the unjust treatment of different categories of people; intersectionality refers discrimination on the basis of only to discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to systemic discrimination choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Systemic discrimination is practices or attitudes that have, whether by design or impact, the effect of limiting an individual’s or a group’s right to the opportunities generally available because of attributed rather than actual characteristics.

b. The law is clear that intention to discriminate is required to prove that discrimination occurred and therefore systemic discrimination refers to a measureable negative effect or impact of certain standards, policies, or behaviour.

c. Systemic discrimination occurs when a mix of rules or practices that may not seem discriminatory when looked at individually, together result in discrimination.

d. Systemic and individual discrimination are assessed the same way: has the individual or group suffered arbitrary or unjustified negative effects or barriers based on a characteristic (such as disability, sex, or age) listed in the act.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to duty to accommodate choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. For an employer or service provider the duty to accommodate means the obligation to take steps to eliminate different and negative treatment of individuals, or groups of individuals based on prohibited grounds of discrimination.

b. The duty to accommodate means that in order to be fair it is necessary to treat people equally.

c. The duty to accommodate has limits and it is not necessary to provide  accommodation if it would cause the organization undue hardship by, for example, costing too much or creating risks to health or safety.

d. There is no precise legal definition of undue hardship and each situation should be viewed as unique and assessed individually based on evidence provided by the employer or service provider on the nature and extent of the hardship.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to identity and identity politics choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Identity can be defined as the characteristics determining who or what a person or thing is.

b. Identity politics refers to a tendency for people of a particular religion, race, social background, or other identity group, to form exclusive political alliances, moving away from traditional broad-based party politics.

c. Identity politics has come to signify a wide range of political activity and theorizing founded in the commitment to the traditional values of a cultural group that constitute, or recently constituted, the dominant group in a country or region.

d. Identity politics has come to signify a wide range of political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice of members of certain social groups.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to identity and rights choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The right to personal identity is recognised in international law and is legally enforced by the Geneva-based United Nations Human Rights Council but this agency does not currently have sufficient resources to do its job effectively.

b. Human rights law exists to ensure that individual lifestyle choices are protected from majoritarian or populist infringement.

c. From as early as birth, an individual’s identity is formed and preserved by registration or by being bestowed with a name.

d. Despite the complexity of personal identity, it is preserved and encouraged through privacy, personality rights and the right to self-expression.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.16. Among statements a-d pertaining to diversity and equality choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The concepts of diversity and equality are somewhat in tension because the former is about recognizing and embracing differences within an institution, workforce, or society while the latter is about fairness, particularly about universal access to employment and social services.

b. There are substantial differences between those with left-leaning views and those with right-leaning views about the appropriate way to address societal diversity and equality.

c. Those on the left tend to view fairness as equality of treatment while those on the right are more concerned with equality of outcomes.

d. Those on the left tend to view differences in group average outcomes as being primarily due to systemic discrimination while those on the right tend to view them as primarily due to differences in initial opportunities and to differences in preferences, capacities, and effort.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.17. Among statements a-d pertaining to affirmative action choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Affirmative action seeks to level the playing field for employment and educational opportunities through active measures to ensure that selection processes treat everyone equally and are completely free from systemic or personal bias.

b. Historically and internationally, support for affirmative action has sought to achieve goals such as bridging inequalities in employment and pay, increasing access to education.

c. Affirmative action is the policy of favoring members of a disadvantaged group who suffer or have suffered from discrimination within a culture.

d. The nature of affirmative action policies varies from region to region with some countries using quota systems and other countries providing minority group members with preference or special consideration in selection processes.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.18. Among statements a-d pertaining to the gender wage gap choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The OECD defines the gender wage gap as the difference between median earnings of men and women relative to median earnings of men, where data refer to full-time employees and to self-employed.

b. The OECD measure of the gender wage gap for 2015 shows Canada’s gender wage gap at 18.6 percent, slightly lower than that of the United States (18.9 percent) and substantially higher than that in Belgium (3.3 percent).

c. Leading economists such as Harvard’s Claudia Goldin who study the gender wage gap in the United States have concluded that most of the gap is attributable to work and family choices rather than to systemic discrimination.

d. The most recent Canadian study of the gender wage gap, conducted by the Government of Ontario’s Gender Wage Gap Committee and completed in 2016, examined in detail the extent to which the current gender wage gap in Canada can plausibly be attributable to work and family choices.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.19. Among statements a-d pertaining to the intersectionality choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Intersectionality can be defined as oppression that arises out of the combination of various oppressions which, together, produce something unique and distinct from any one form of discrimination standing alone.

b. An intersectional analysis can address the extent to which racial minority women experience discrimination in a completely different way than racial minority men or even women as a gender because groups often experience distinctive forms of stereotyping or barriers based on a combination of race and gender.

c. An intersectional analysis can be informed by developments in gender equality analysis, critical race analysis, disability rights analysis and equality rights jurisprudence.

d. An intersectional analysis can become one of the lenses through which the social context of the individual can be examined and can, in some measure, address social conditions relating to poverty, low income and homelessness.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.20. Among statements a-d pertaining to the human rights laws choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In many countries, including Canada, human rights laws stem from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

b. Canada’s human rights laws are part of the Constitution.

c. The Canadian Human Rights Act of 1977 protects people in Canada from discrimination when they are employed by or receive services from the federal government, First Nations governments, or private companies that are regulated by the federal government.

d. Ontario’s Human Rights Code was the first human rights code in Canada and is a key element of human rights law in the province.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.21. Among statements a-d pertaining to viewpoint diversity choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Advocates of viewpoint diversity within the academy would like to see greater emphasis in both teaching and research on the perspectives of the many underprivileged groups whose concerns are not yet adequately addressed by mainstream society.

b. Advocates of viewpoint diversity claim that scholarship in the social sciences and related fields such as law and public policy would be better served if there were greater diversity of viewpoints among researchers.

c. Advocates of viewpoint diversity claim that some ideas become widely accepted without any real evidence because they support particular political or moral agendas.

d. Advocates of viewpoint diversity claim that the following ideas have become entrenched even though the evidence suggests that they are highly questionable: humans are a blank slate and human nature does not exist; and all differences between human groups are caused by differential treatment of those groups.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.22. Among statements a-d pertaining to stereotypes choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A stereotype can be defined as a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.

b. The use of stereotypes is a major way in which people simplify their social world; since they reduce the amount of processing (i.e., thinking) they have to do when they meet a new person.

c. The use of stereotypes lets people ignore differences between individuals and to make generalizations about individuals that might not be true.

d. Most stereotypes have little basis in fact and can be refuted with careful social science research.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.23. Among statements a-d pertaining to Rutgers social psychology professor Lee Jessim’s analysis of stereotype accuracy choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The majority of social scientists no longer claim, assume, or imply that stereotypes are inaccurate.

b. In his review of research assessing stereotype accuracy, Lee Jussim defines stereotype accuracy as the extent to which people’s beliefs about groups correspond to those groups’ actual characteristics.

c. In his review of research assessing stereotype accuracy, Lee Jussim concludes that there is some evidence of inaccuracy in stereotypes, especially national stereotypes of personality.

d. In his review of research assessing stereotype accuracy, Lee Jussim concludes that stereotype accuracy is far more replicable than many far more famous “effects” in social psychology.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.24. Among the statements a-e pertaining to stereotype and stereotype accuracy choose the one that is least valid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A stereotype is a belief about the characteristics of a social group but the accuracy of stereotypes can not be properly measured.

b. A stereotype is an oversimplified image or idea about a particular person or group and stereotype accuracy refers to the extent to which beliefs correspond to actual characteristics.

c. Stereotypes have advantages and disadvantages and it is possible to measure the accuracy of stereotypes.

d. Stereotypes lead to social categorization and potential prejudice but the accuracy of stereotypes is often disputed.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.25. Among statements a-d pertaining to implicit bias and the Harvard implicit association test choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Implicit bias is a term referring to relatively unconscious and relatively automatic features of prejudiced judgment and social behavior.

b. An example of the effects of implicit bias would be a person who explicitly believes that women and men are equally suited for careers outside the home but, despite this explicitly egalitarian belief, the person might nevertheless implicitly associate women with the home, and this implicit association might lead that person to behave in any number of biased ways, from trusting feedback from female co-workers less to hiring equally qualified men over women.

c. The Harvard implicit association test (IAT) provides a free online test that many organizations encourage members of selection committees take to help them recognize their own implicit biases in order to take account of them in the process of selecting candidates.

d. Several recent studies have concluded that the Harvard implicit association test (IAT) meets the quality-control standards normally expected of psychological instruments and that the IAT is an reliable measure that correlates sufficiently with real-world outcomes to be a useful predictions of individuals’ behavior.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.26. Among statements a-d pertaining to concept creep choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Many of psychology’s concepts have undergone semantic shifts in recent years.

b. These conceptual changes follow a consistent trend with concepts that refer to the negative aspects of human experience and behavior expanding their meanings so that they now encompass a much broader range of phenomena than before.

c. Concept creep can be seen in concepts such as abuse, bullying, trauma, mental disorder, addiction, and prejudice.

d. Advocates of viewpoint diversity claim that the main contributor to concept creep is an ever-increasing sensitivity to harm, reflecting a liberal moral agenda.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.27. Among statements a-d pertaining to concept creep and viewpoint diversity choose the one that is most valid or choose e if none are valid.

a. Viewpoint diversity refers to the idea that educational institutions have narrowed their scope of teaching to the far left and thus should use methods like concept creep to expand the meaning of concepts to the far right.

b. Viewpoint diversity entails challenging students’ beliefs and teach them to think to embrace concept creep.

c. Concept creep refers to the expansion of the meaning of certain concepts to include additional phenomena and points to the need for greater viewpoint diversity.

d. Concept creep refers to the expansion of the meaning of certain concepts to include new phenomena as a result of greater viewpoint diversity.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.08.28. Among statements a-d pertaining to the description of victimhood culture choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In a victimhood culture, when intolerable conflicts arise, society prescribes direct but non-violent actions, such as negotiated compromise geared toward solving the problem, or if the offense is sufficiently severe, people are to go to the police or appeal to the courts, with the ideal of using the courts as quickly, quietly, and rarely as possible.

b. In a victimhood culture domination is the main form of deviance, and victimization a way of attracting sympathy, so rather than emphasize either their strength or inner worth, the aggrieved emphasize their oppression and social marginalization leading to a society where complaint to third parties has supplanted both toleration and negotiation.

c. In a victimhood culture people increasingly demand help from others, and advertise their oppression as evidence that they deserve respect and assistance, with the effect that the moral status of the victim has risen to new heights.

d. In a victimhood culture people are intolerant of insults, even if unintentional, and react by bringing them to the attention of authorities or to the public at large.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.08.29. Among statements a-d pertaining to the description of Jonathan Haidt’s telos choice for universities (truth or social justice) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Haidt claims that the pursuit of truth and the pursuit of social justice are two incompatible values in universities.

b. Haidt claims that scholars, like everyone else, are susceptible to motivated reasoning whereby if people want to believe a proposition they ask themselves “Can I believe it?” but if the don’t want to believe a proposition they ask “Must I believe it?” and that this leads to predicable distortions in scientific inquiry.

c. Haidt claims that motivated reasoning leads to scholarship undertaken to support a political agenda almost always succeeding, and the propagation of pleasing falsehoods that cannot be removed from circulation, even after they are debunked.

d. Haidt claims that are two major kinds of justice that activists are seeking: finding and eradicating disparate treatment (which is always a good thing to do, and which never conflicts with truth), and finding and eradicating disparate outcomes, without regard for disparate inputs or third variables, and that it is this latter part which causes all of the conflicts with truth.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to the judiciary choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The judiciary as the branch of government in which judicial power is vested.

b. In Canada, the Constitution gives the federal government exclusive lawmaking power over criminal law and criminal procedure and it gave the provinces exclusive lawmaking power over the administration of justice in each province.

c. In Canada, the Constitution gives the federal government the authority to appoint judges at all levels of the courts including magistrates and justices of the peace.

d. Whether it presides over criminal prosecutions or civil lawsuits, the role of the judiciary is to serve as an impartial arbiter, and the court’s impartiality flows from an essential feature of the judicial system – independence of the judiciary.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Canadian courts of law choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A fundamental aspect of the Canadian judicial system is the essentially unitary aspect of Canadian courts provided by provincial superior courts of general jurisdiction with federally appointed judges.

b. In Canada, the provinces constitute, maintain and organize superior, county and district courts of both civil and criminal jurisdiction, and the federal government appoints the judges and pays their salaries.

c. In Canada, provincial or municipal governments appoint judges of provincial lower courts, magistrates, justices of the peace, coroners, sheriffs and other officers of provincial courts.

d. In Canada, provincially appointed judges deal with provincial but not federal legislation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to the judicial councils choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In most jurisdictions a there is a judicial council with a mandate to review complaints against judges and to promote the quality of the judicial service.

b. In Canada, the Canadian Judicial Council is chaired by the Chief Justice of Canada and there are 38 other Council members, who are the chief justices and associate chief justices of Canada’s superior courts, the senior judges of the territorial courts, and the Chief Justice of the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada.

c. The complaint review procedure at the Ontario Judicial Council involves an initial investigation of a citizen’s complaint by a two-member subcommittee which makes a report to a review panel of the Council which can dismiss a complaint, refer the complaint to the Chief Justice of the Ontario Court of Justice to speak to the judge about concerns raised in the complaint, or order that a formal, public hearing into the complaint.

d. In Canada, federally appointed judges cannot be removed through a provincially-organized body such as the Ontario Judicial Council.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to the common law choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Common law as the system of law that evolved from the decisions of the English royal courts of justice since the Norman Conquest.

b. Common law is includes statutes as well as decisions and applies in most English-speaking countries, including all Canadian provinces except Québec.

c. Common law systems place great weight on court decisions, which are considered law with the same force of law as statutes.

d. In civil law jurisdictions courts lack authority to act if there is no statute and judicial precedent is given less interpretive weight whereas scholarly literature is given more weight than in common law systems.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to stare decisis choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Stare decisis is the doctrine of precedent and a crucial element of common law.

b. Courts cite stare decisis when an issue has been previously brought to the court and a ruling already issued and in this way stare decisis discourages litigating established precedents, and thus, reduces costs in the judicial system.

c. Critics argue that the stare decisis doctrine occasionally permits erroneous decisions to continue influencing the law and encumbers the legal system’s ability to quickly adapt to change.

d. Because stare decisis requires that cases must be decided the same way only when all the facts are the same, the doctrine has limited applicability in real life where the facts of the case are never exactly the same.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between common law and stare decisis choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Common law includes interpretation of the Constitution by the courts and stare decisis occurs when a previous decision has been overturned.

b. Common law includes the interpretation of legislative statutes by the courts; stare decisis is a component of common law that refers to the situation when courts adhere to a previous ruling.

c. Common law includes interpretation of the Constitution by the courts and stare decisis includes a situation when courts adhere to rulings by a higher court.

d. Common law includes interpretation of legislative statutes by the courts; stare decisis is a component of common law that discourages reviewing established precedents.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to criminal law choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Criminal law as a body of law that prohibits certain kinds of conduct and imposes sanctions for unlawful behaviour.

b. Prohibitions contained in criminal offences include those related to: protection of the person (e.g., murder and assault offences); protection of property (e.g., theft and fraud offences); preservation of the public peace (e.g., incitement to riot and causing a disturbance offences); and preservation of the state (e.g., treason offences).

c. Prohibitions related to preservation of morality (through such laws as the obscenity and prostitution offences) form part of administrative law or constitutional law rather than criminal law.

d. Criminal law is a means by which society reaffirms its values and denounces violators and may be amended if a change in values entails a change in the types of conduct society wishes to prohibit.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to administrative law choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Administrative law deals with the administration of justice and in Canada it provides all persons with due process, regardless of their citizenship.

b. The major purpose of administrative law is to ensure that the activities of government are authorized by Parliament or by provincial legislatures, and that laws are implemented and administered in a fair and reasonable manner.

c. Administrative law is based on the principle that government action, whatever form it takes, must be legal, and that citizens who are affected by unlawful acts of government officials must have effective remedies.

d. Canadian courts will only exercise their control over administrative authorities if the authority exceeds its jurisdiction, if it makes a decision which is patently unreasonable or if it follows improper or unfair procedures.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between Constitutional Law and Administrative Law choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Administrative law concerns the actions taken by government; constitutional law concerns interpretation of the Constitution by the judiciary.

b. Administrative law concerns the actions taken by government; constitutional law pertains to the functioning of the state.

c. Administrative law concerns interpretation of laws by the courts; constitutional law dictates that actions taken by the government must be legal.

d. Administrative law dictates that actions taken by the government must be legal; constitutional law concerns areas of law that everyone must follow although not explicitly stated.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to Ran Hirschl’s critique on the judicialization of politics choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Ran Hirschl defines the judicialization of politics as the ever-accelerating reliance on courts and judicial means for addressing core moral predicaments, public policy questions, and political controversies.

b. Ran Hirschl argues that the judicialization of politics is basically a generic form of judicial activism.

c. Ran Hirschl notes that newly acquired judicial review procedures, national high courts worldwide have been frequently been asked to resolve public policies is areas pertaining to criminal justice, property, trade and commerce, education, immigration, labor, and environmental protection.

d. Ran Hirschl claims that we are witnessing the spread of legal discourse, jargon, rules, and procedures into the political sphere and policy-making forums and processes so that matters that had previously been negotiated in an informal or nonjudicial fashion have now come to be dominated by legal rules and procedures.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to Andrew Petter’s critique on the judicialization of politics choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Andrew Petter claims that elected officials would prefer to have a stronger role in deciding upon high profile policy issues that go to the heart of nation building and collective identity but that they are prevented from doing so by courts who prefer to determine the outcome through judicial review procedures.

b. Andrew Petter claims that since the Charter came into force in 1982, issues of rights in Canada have increasingly become identified and understood as being legal rather than political in nature.

c. Andrew Petter claims that the judicialization of politics has produced two spheres of public discourse: a sphere of justice and rights that has become the primary domain of lawyers and courts and a sphere of policy and interests that remains the principal preserve of politicians and legislatures.

d. Andrew Petter claims that the event of conflict between the sphere of justice and rights and the sphere of policy and interests those who speak in the language of the former usually have a rhetorical and political advantage over those who speak in the language of the latter.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to charter dialogue between courts and legislatures choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Where a judicial decision is open to legislative reversal, modification, or avoidance, then it is meaningful to regard the relationship between the Court and the competent legislative body as a dialogue.

b. Hogg and Bushell reviewed of 65 cases where charter dialogue could be at play and concluded that Court never rendered decisions that force the democratically elected legislative body to modify its objectives to accommodate the Court’s concerns.

b. Hogg and Bushell reviewed of 65 cases where charter dialogue could be at play and concluded that the critique of the Charter based on democratic legitimacy cannot be sustained.

c. Hogg and Bushell concluded that, although the Supreme Court of Canada does from time to time strike down statutes enacted by legislative bodies, the decisions of the Court almost always leave room for a legislative response, and they usually get a legislative response.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to impartiality choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Canadian Superior Courts Judges Association states that it is not enough for the judiciary, as an institution, to be independent – individual judges must be seen to be objective and impartial and this means that in their personal lives, judges must avoid words, actions or situations that might make them appear to be biased or disrespectful of the laws they are sworn to uphold.

b. For public servants, the doctrine of impartiality means that one must serve the Government, whatever its political persuasion, to the best of one’s ability in a way which maintains political impartiality no matter what one’s own political beliefs are.

c. For public servants, the doctrine of impartiality means that one must deal equally with everyone, and with every organisation, without prejudice, favour or disfavour.

d. For public servants, the doctrine of impartiality permits one to act in a way which deserves and retains the confidence of Ministers, while at the same time ensuring that one will be able to establish the same relationship with those whom one may be required to serve in some future Government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to adjudication choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Unlike litigation, adjudication generally allows the parties to design most aspects of the resolution process to suit their needs and the nature of the dispute.

b. The requirements of full adjudication include notice to all interested parties (all parties with a legal interest in, or legal right affected by, the dispute) and an opportunity for all parties to present evidence and arguments.

c. The adjudicative process is governed by formal rules of evidence and procedure, and a decision is rendered by an impartial, passive fact finder, usually a judge, jury, or administrative tribunal.

d. Adjudication is the legal process of resolving a dispute.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to procedural fairness and natural justice choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A key role of tribunals and courts in Administrative Law is to ensure procedural fairness by following the principles of natural justice.

b. Natural justice uses a set of rules based on natural human expectations of how people should be treated and are more readily understandable than the rules covering formal court procedure.

c. The procedures associated with natural justice include the basic requirement of the “right to be heard.”

d. The procedures associated with natural justice have two basic objectives: to ensure that every person whose interests are at risk is entitled to participate in the process before a decision is taken affecting their interests, whether by hearing or otherwise, and that any decision made by tribunal is impartial and not biased.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.16. Among statements a-d pertaining to administrative tribunals one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. An administrative tribunal is an autonomous agency that is independent of the government and is responsible for settling disputes between the government and its citizens.

b. In Ontario an administrative tribunal can be called a tribunal, an agency, a board or a commission.

c. In order to ensure a uniform of the administrative fairness and natural justice, in Ontario all administrative tribunals come under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Attorney General.

d. There are over 200 administrative tribunals in Ontario.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.17. Among statements a-d pertaining to administrative tribunals one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. An administrative tribunal is an autonomous agency that is independent of the government and is responsible for settling disputes between the government and its citizens.

b. In Ontario an administrative tribunal can be called a tribunal, an agency, a board or a commission.

c. In order to ensure a uniform of the administrative fairness and natural justice, in Ontario all administrative tribunals come under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Attorney General.

d. There are over 200 administrative tribunals in Ontario.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.18. Among statements a-d pertaining to the human rights commissions choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A human rights commission as a department, body, or committee constituted by a state or its local government to investigate on human rights violations and to protect human rights.

b. A human rights commission can be set up at international, national or sub-national levels.

c. The Canadian Human Rights Commission was created to administer the Canadian Human Rights Act and it also ensures compliance with the Employment Equity Act.

d. Because human rights commissions are quasi-judicial bodies they are usually led by experts in legal process rather than by prominent advocates of human rights.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.19. Among statements a-d pertaining to the human rights tribunals choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Human rights commissions in most jurisdictions are quasi-judicial bodies with statutory mandates to apply and interpret human rights acts.

b. Because human rights tribunals similar to courts of law they are usually led by experts in law and legal process rather than by advocates of human rights.

c. The Canadian Human Rights Tribunal has a statutory mandate to apply the Canadian Human Rights Act based on the evidence presented and on the case law.

d. The Canadian Human Rights Tribunal uses the full procedures of a court of law to cases that are referred to it by the Canadian Human Rights Commission.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.20. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between human rights commissions and human rights tribunals choose the one that is most valid or choose e if none are valid.

a. Human rights commissions are constituted by the state or local government to interpret a human rights act; human rights tribunals are quasi-judicial bodies responsible for advocating and promoting human rights and investigating violations.

b. Human rights commissions are quasi-judicial bodies responsible for protecting human rights; human rights tribunals are constituted by the state and are responsible for enforcing a human rights act.

c. Human rights commissions are constituted by the state and are responsible for protecting human rights and investigating violations; human rights tribunals are quasi-judicial bodies that are solely responsible for interpreting human rights acts.

d. Human rights commissions are responsible for holding formal court hearings for violations of human rights acts; human rights tribunal is just the name of the court where these hearings take place.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.09.21. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Conflict of Interest and Ethics Commissioner choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Conflict of Interest and Ethics Commissioner is an independent Officer of Parliament.

b. The Conflict of Interest and Ethics Commissioner helps Members of the House of Commons and Senators avoid conflicts between their public duties and private interests.

c. The mission of the Office of the Conflict of Interest and Ethics Commissioner is to administer the conflict of interest rules for Members of the House of Commons and public office holders.

d. The duties of the Conflict of Interest and Ethics Commissioner include advising public office holders, reviewing their confidential information, making available publicly declarable information, investigating possible contraventions and reporting to Parliament.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.22. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Commissioner of Lobbying choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Commissioner of Lobbying conducts reviews and investigations to ensure compliance with the Act and the Lobbyists’ Code of Conduct.

b. The Commissioner of Lobbying is an independent Officer of Parliament, appointed by both houses of Parliament for a term of seven years.

c. The Commissioner of Lobbying certifies lobbyists before they meet with pubic officials.

d. The Commissioner of Lobbying maintains a Registry of Lobbyists, which contains and makes public the registration information disclosed by lobbyists.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.09.23. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Public Sector Integrity Commissioner of Canada choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Office of the Public Sector Integrity Commissioner investigates wrongdoing in the federal public sector and helps protect from reprisal whistleblowers and those who participate in investigations.

b. The Public Sector Integrity Commissioner reports directly to Parliament.

c. The Office provides a confidential and independent response to disclosures of wrongdoing in the federal public sector from public servants or members of the public.

d. The Office provides a confidential and independent response to complaints of reprisal from public servants and former public servants.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to Aboriginal peoples choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Aboriginal peoples is a collective name for the original peoples of North America and their descendants.

b. The Canadian constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal peoples: Indians (commonly referred to as First Nations), Métis and Inuit.

c. Non-Status Indians are not technically part of the collectivity known as Aboriginal people.

d. Data from Canada’s National Household Survey (NHS) show that 1,400,685 people had an Aboriginal identity in 2011, representing 4.3% of the total Canadian population.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to Non-Status Indians choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Non-status Indians are individuals who identify themselves, culturally, as First Nations people (or North American Indians, which is the term used in the census) rather than as Métis or Inuit, but they are not registered under the Indian Act.

b. Approximately one-quarter of First Nations people are not Registered Indians.

c. The category of Non-Status Indian emerged from regulations for determining who was “Indian” and, by definition, who had lost that status, starting with the 1869 amendments to the Indian Act that stated that First Nations women who married non-First Nations men would lose their status.

d. In 1985 Bill C-31 amended the Indian Act to allow individuals who had lost legal Indian status as a result of the 1869 amendment (regarding marriage to a non-Indian man) to regain their Indian status.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969 (White Paper) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The 1969 White Paper stated that the goals of Canada’s Indian people cannot be set by others and must spring from the Indian community itself but that government could create a framework within which all persons and groups can seek their own goals.

b. The 1969 White Paper was a policy failure and was withdrawn because, at the end of the day, the government could neither commit to removing the legislative and constitutional bases of discrimination, nor commit to transfer control of Indian lands to Indian people.

c. The 1969 White Paper was a policy failure and was withdrawn because many felt the document overlooked concerns raised during consultations and appeared to be a final attempt to assimilate Indigenous peoples into the Canadian population.

d. The 1969 White Paper was a policy failure and was withdrawn because many Indigenous leaders felt that instead of dealing with First Nations fairly and appropriately, the federal government was absolving itself of historical promises and responsibilities. Instead, provinces – with whom First Nations had no relationship – would be forced to deal with longstanding issues.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Calder Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1973 choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Calder decision deals with the question of whether Aboriginal title could exist in common law.

b. The Calder case reviewed the existence of Aboriginal title claimed over lands historically occupied by the Nisga’a Aboriginal peoples of northwestern BC.

c. In the Calder case, the Supreme Court of Canada by a majority recognized that aboriginal title could exist in common law.

d. The Calder decision was a major factor leading to federal willingness to negotiate Aboriginal land claims.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to Indigenous rights choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Indigenous rights in Canada are inherent, collective rights that flow from pre-contact social orders and the original occupation of the land that is now Canada.

b. In Canada, Indigenous rights apply to First Nations and Inuit, but not to Métis, where the basis of rights is constitutionally distinct.

c. Indigenous rights are also known as Aboriginal rights or inherent rights and they include Aboriginal title to traditional lands.

d. No Indigenous right, even though constitutionally protected, is absolute in Canadian law.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. UNDRIP has a preamble and 46 articles laying out a series of collective and individual human rights that the United Nations has decided should be the minimum enjoyed by Indigenous peoples the world over.

b. UNDRIP includes a definition of Indigenous peoples that was the product of many years of deliberation and debate.

c. UNDRIP includes a provision for retroactive compensation for things done in violation of Indigenous laws, traditions and customs.

d. UNDRIP requires that free and informed consent of Indigenous peoples be obtained prior to approval of any project affecting their lands or territories and other resources.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Sparrow Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1990 choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Sparrow decision deals with the content and the extent of Aboriginal rights, based on a case involving fishing rights.

b. In the Sparrow case an Indigenous person fished contrary to the provisions of federal law and in his defence he alleged that the right to fish was an immemorial right protected by treaty by virtue of section 35 of the Constitution Act.

c. In the Sparrow decision the Supreme Court upheld Indigenous rights, finding that if they existed on 17 April 1982 then they were affirmed and could not be limited.

d. In the Sparrow decision the Supreme Court stated that section 35 of the Constitution Act must be interpreted liberally to ensure that any law or regulation that infringes on an existing right have a valid purpose and detract as little as possible from an existing right.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to Aboriginal title choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Aboriginal title as a legal term that recognizes an Aboriginal interest in the land.

b. Aboriginal title is a communal right; an individual cannot hold Aboriginal title.

c. Aboriginal title to land confers less absolute property rights than fee simple ownership with respect to exclusive use and occupation of the land.

d. Aboriginal title is also referred to as Indigenous title, Native title (particularly in Australia), original Indian title (particularly in the United States), and customary title (particularly in New Zealand).

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Delgamuukw Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1997 choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Delgamuukw decision deals with the definition, the content, and the extent, of Aboriginal title.

b. In the Delgamuukw case the Supreme Court held that Aboriginal title constituted an ancestral right protected by Section 35(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982.

c. In the Delgamuukw case the Supreme Court held that Aboriginal title is a right relating to land sui generis, held communally and distinct from other ancestral rights.

d. In the Delgamuukw case the Supreme Court held that Aboriginal title, being sui generis, does not encompass exclusive use and occupation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Tsilhqot’in Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, 2014 choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Tsilhqot’in decision deals with the definition, the content, and the extent, of Aboriginal title.

b. The Tsilhqot’in decision is seen by most business associations as providing greater clarity in the obligations of resource developers and thus improve Canada’s overall business climate.

c. In the Tsilhqot’in case the Supreme Court of Canada ruled unanimously in favour of Chief Roger William, acting on his own behalf and on the behalf of all members of the Tsilhqot’in Nation, granting Aboriginal title to 1700 km2 of land traditionally inhabited by the Tsilhqot’in.

d. The Tsilhqot’in decision clarified the requirements for establishing Aboriginal title: an Aboriginal group must first prove occupation, and then must prove continuity and exclusivity of said occupation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to land claims choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Government of Canada policy for the settlement of Aboriginal land claims policy divides claims into two broad categories: specific and comprehensive.

b. Specific claims, made by First Nations against Canada, relate to the administration of land and other assets, or to the non-fulfilment of historic treaties.

c. Comprehensive land claims are based on the assertion of continuing Aboriginal rights and/or title to lands and natural resources.

d. After many years of research and conciliation, there are no longer any substantial areas in Canada where land is claimed by more than one First Nation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to treaty rights choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Treaty rights are Indigenous rights set out in a treaty.

b. Indigenous treaties in Canada are constitutionally recognized agreements between the Crown and Indigenous peoples.

c. In all Canadian provinces except for Newfoundland the majority of the land is covered by Indigenous treaties.

d. While no two treaties are identical, examples of treaty rights across Canada included such things as reserve lands, farming equipment and animals, annual payments, ammunition, clothing and certain rights to hunt and fish.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to nation-to-nation relationship choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Nation-to-nation relationship has been used to describe a way in which Indigenous entities could interact with governments in Canada but the exact meaning is still unclear.

b. The 2015 Speech from the Throne promised that “the Government will undertake to renew, nation-to-nation, the relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples, one based on recognition of rights, respect, co-operation and partnership.”

c. The commitment to a nation to nation relationship applies to First Nations and to Inuit communities, but not to the Métis Nation where a different framework is proposed.

d. In his 6 December 2016 address to the Assembly of First Nations, Prime Minister Trudeau made two references to nation-to-nation: “I do not take my call for a nation-to-nation relationship with Indigenous Peoples lightly” and “It is of the greatest imperative that all of us here never allow Canadians the chance to fear that due to a lack of joint leadership, of a true nation-to-nation dialogue and relationship, we aren’t able to achieve this most vital of goals.”

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to inherent right to self-government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The inherent right is an existing Aboriginal right under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.

b. The Government of Canada’s policy on self-government describes the range of subjects that the federal government is willing to negotiate for self-government and it includes: matters internal to the group, integral to Aboriginal culture, and essential to operating as a government or institution.

c. Examples of areas for negotiation in the Government of Canada’s policy on self-government include: establishment of government structures and internal constitutions; membership; marriage; Aboriginal languages, culture and religion; education; health; social services; policing; enforcement of Aboriginal laws; and others.

d. The Government of Canada’s policy on self-government lists a number of other subject matters are not open to negotiation under two headings: 1) powers related to Canadian sovereignty, defence and external relations; and 2) other national interest powers.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to self-government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Aboriginal self-government refers to governments designed, established and administered by Aboriginal peoples under the Canadian Constitution through a process of negotiation with Canada and, where applicable, the provincial government.

b. In the Canadian context there is no single definition of self-government, and instead, points to three narratives that have informed political debate and policy development related to self-government in the past 30 years: self-government as self-administration (through delegated authority); self-government as an inherent right; and self-government as coexisting sovereignties.

c. Aboriginal self-government raises the question of how to reconcile a treaty-based association with a substantive conception of shared citizenship, which is considered by many to be a necessary condition to fostering a sense of solidarity and cooperation across communities that are bound to live together on a common territory.

d. Although discussions have been underway for many years, there are not yet any completed self-government in place in Canada.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.16. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples was established following the Oka Crisis in the summer of 1990 as part of a package of federal government initiatives in response to concerns arising from the crisis.

b. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples established a large and complex research agenda with four theme areas (governance; land and economy; social and cultural issues; and the North) each of which was to addressed from four perspectives (historical, women, youth and urban).

c. The main conclusion of the report was the need for a complete restructuring of the relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada.

d. Recognizing that there was little appetite among Canadians and their governments to undertake another round of constitutional negotiation, the Commission was careful to draft its recommendations in a way that could be implemented without constitutional change.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.17. Among statements a-d pertaining to Abele and Prince’s four models of Aboriginal self-government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Abele and Prince’s four models of Aboriginal self-government differ by the constitutional status of Aboriginal governments and their political relationship to the Canadian state system.

b. Abele and Prince’s four models include mini-municipalities, favoured by some provincial governments and non-Aboriginal academics.

c. Abele and Prince’s four models include adapted federalism, the model implicitly endorsed by the federal government, with new subnational entities in a modest adaptation of Canadian federalism.

d. Abele and Prince’s four models include nation-to-nation, supported by many Indigenous leaders where aboriginal governments would be part of a treaty-based alliance between the Aboriginal governments and the Crown in Canada.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.18. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between governance and self-government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Papillon claims that the most effective path to Aboriginal self-government is the development of demonstrably sound governance practices and greater self-sufficiency within the existing legal framework.

b. Papillon observes that the idea of an inherent Aboriginal right to self-government gained currency at a time of institutional instability when the constitutional battles of the 1980s and successive Supreme Court decisions defining the scope and meaning of Aboriginal rights proved a fertile ground for Aboriginal peoples to have their governing rights recognized by Canadian governments.

c. Papillon asserts that the context shifted drastically in the mid-1990s, as deficits and economic preoccupations came to occupy the forefront of the political agenda and autonomy for First Nations came to be equated with economic self-sufficiency rather than with an inherent political right.

d. Papillon suggests that the earlier commitment of federal and provincial governments to Aboriginal self-government has been replaced since the mid-1990s by a broader focus on Aboriginal governance and sector-specific agreements for the management of programs and services.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.19. Among statements a-d pertaining to Martin Papillon’s observations on what he calls the mosaic of Aboriginal governance choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In his review of the evolution of Aboriginal self-government in Canada, Papillon concludes that there exists “a mosaic of multilevel governance relations between Aboriginal nations and their federal and provincial counterparts, each with its own institutional framework and evolving dynamics” and he believes this points to “an alternative way for Aboriginal peoples to reshape their relationship with Canadian federalism.”

b. Papillon observes that significant shifts have taken place in the constitutional framework and institutions of Canadian federalism and these shifts remain very much a work in progress, with the extent and meaning of Aboriginal rights still being defined though the courts as well as through public and academic debates.

c. Papillon asserts Aboriginal governance is now increasingly being played out in multiple venues with provinces now playing an increasing role as a result of their involvement in treaty negotiations and in the process of administrative devolution to Aboriginal governments and organizations, and Aboriginal governments  increasingly proactive in developing their intergovernmental capacity.

d. Papillon suggests that this emerging multilevel mosaic offers what can, in effect, be defined as an alternative way for Aboriginal peoples to reshape their relationship with Canadian federalism, with change coming not from above, through formal constitutional processes, but rather from below, through the consolidation of Aboriginal governments’ capacity and legitimacy in exercises of governance.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.20. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The TRC was created to provide those directly or indirectly affected by the legacy of the Indian Residential Schools system with an opportunity to share their stories and experiences.

b. The TRC created a historical record of the residential schools system.

c. The TRC developed 94 calls to action under the headings of child welfare, education, language and culture, health, justice, United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Royal Proclamation and Covenant of Reconciliation, equity for Aboriginal people in the legal system, National Council for Reconciliation, professional development and training for public servants, church apologies and reconciliation, education for reconciliation, youth programs, museums and archives, missing children and burial information, National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, commemoration, media and reconciliation, sports and reconciliation, business and reconciliation, and newcomers to Canada.

d. The Government of Canada (as of February 2017) has yet to commit to addressing the calls to action.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.10.21. Among statements a-d pertaining to Indigenization choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Indigenization is the process of changing institutions and processes (particularly in the educational realm) to take greater account of the history, culture, and circumstances of Indigenous peoples.

b. Universities Canada has released a set of Principles on Indigenous Education which include recognizing the importance of providing greater exposure and knowledge for non-Indigenous students on the realities, histories, cultures and beliefs of Indigenous people in Canada.

c. All universities that are members of Universities Canada have committed to requiring at least one course on Indigenous studies for all undergraduates entering in fall 2017 and later.

d. Examples of Indigenization of a non-curricular nature that have already been adopted in some Canadian universities include buildings inspired by indigenous cultures, campus gardens with traditional plants, making powwows are a key part of ceremonial and cultural life, and street signs on campus roads in both English and an Indigenous language.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term organizational behaviour choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organizational behaviour is the field of study that investigates how organizational structures, as opposed to human preferences, affect the actions of the organization as a whole.

b. Organizational behaviour studies the impact individuals, groups, and structures have on human behaviour within organizations.

c. Organizational behaviour is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication, and management.

d. Organizational behavior complements organizational theory, which focuses on organizational and intra-organizational topics, and complements human-resource studies, which is more focused on everyday business practices.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term organizational theory choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organizational theory is the set of interrelated concepts and definitions that explain the behaviour of individuals or groups or subgroups who interact with each other to perform the activities intended towards the accomplishment of a common goal.

b. Prominent organizational theories have included scientific management theory, administrative theory, and bureaucratic theory.

c. Scientific management theory is known for its application of engineering science at the production floor or the operating levels and is sometimes called Taylorism after its major contributor, Fredrick Winslow Taylor.

d. Bureaucratic theory is related to the structure and administrative process of the organization and is associated with Max Weber, who described the bureaucratic organization is the most rational means to exercise control over the individual workers.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to Weber’s theory of bureaucracy choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Weber’s bureaucratic model includes continuous learning and adaptation to changing circumstances.

b. Weber’s bureaucratic model includes rigid division of labor which clearly identifies the regular tasks and duties of the particular bureaucratic system.

c. Weber’s bureaucratic model includes firmly established chains of command, and the duties and capacity to coerce others to comply is described by regulation.

d. Weber’s bureaucratic model includes regular and continuous execution of the assigned duties by hiring people with particular qualifications which are certified.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to Fayol’s theory of administration choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Fayol’s 14 principles of management include division of work – the breaking down of a job so as to have a number of different tasks that make up the whole.

b. Fayol’s 14 principles of management include equity – managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates.

c. Fayol’s 14 principles of management include initiative – employees who are allowed to originate and carry out plans will exert high levels of effort.

d. Fayol’s 14 principles of management include esprit de corps – promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organization.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to Allison’s three models of government action choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The three models or lenses for analyzing government action that Graham Allison set out in his 1969 article, Conceptual models and the Cuban Missile Crisis, have limited utility outside the field of international relations.

b. In Allison’s Model 1, the state acts as a unitary rational actor to make “decisions.”

c. In Allison’s Model 2, the sub-units of the state act according to pre-determined standard operating procedures to produce an “output.”

d. In Allison’s Model 3, policy “outcomes” are the result of bargaining among leaders of various units within the organization or state.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to public choice theory choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public choice theory aims to determines how policies would be implemented if the public could exercise its choice at each stage of the process.

b. Public choice theory applies the theories and methods of economics to the analysis of political behavior.

c. Public choice theory can be viewed as “politics without romance.”

d. Public choice theory assumes that people are guided chiefly by their own self-interests and that the motivations of people in the political process are no different from those of people in other markets.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to Niskanen’s budget maximizing model choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Niskanen’s budget maximizing model predicts that the government department’s objective will be to maximize the quantity of services supplied, subject to a social welfare break-even constraint that occurs when the dead weight loss generated by excessive production of services must becomes higher than the elector’s consumer surplus.

b. A private-sector utility maximizing model would anticipate that a government department would expand services (and budgets) to the point that the marginal cost and marginal benefits are equated, but Niskanen’s model would predict that average costs and benefits would be equated instead of the marginal costs and marginal benefits.

c. Niskanen’s budget maximizing model predicts that in roughly half of the  circumstances found in the public sector, bureaucrats will seek to increase their budgets in order to increase their own power.

d. Niskanen argues that when budget maximizing occurs it contributes strongly to state growth and potentially reduces social efficiency.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Anthony Downs’ typology of government officials choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In search of promotions, climbers seek to aggrandize their current office/income and find new opportunities above it (or outside the bureau).

b. Motivated by job security and convenience, conservers strongly oppose any losses in their existing power, income, and prestige but do not actively pursue more of these goods.

c. As partisans, advocates promote everything they can within their jurisdiction and can be highly partisan externally, while being impartial arbiters internally.

d. Natural statesmen are doomed to be misfits in office and most are forced by the exigencies of their positions to behave like some other type (usually advocates).

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to organizational culture choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organizational culture is the collection of values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization.

b. Organizational culture is organic in nature and remains largely unaffected by actions and initiatives taken by senior management.

c. Organizational culture includes an organization’s expectations, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it together, and is expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations.

d. Organizational culture is based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written and unwritten rules that have been developed over time and are considered valid.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to organization chart choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. An organization chart is a diagram that illustrates the structure of an organization.

b. An organization chart can also be called an organizational chart, an org chart, or an organogram.

c. An organization chart illustrates the relationships and relative ranks of its business units or divisions, and the positions or roles assigned to each unit or division.

d. An organization chart is unlikely to be useful without the names of the people occupying the boxes on the chart.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to organization structure types choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. There are three main types of organizational structure and one of them will be optimal for a particular organizational mission and culture.

b. A functional structure is set up so that each portion of the organization is grouped according to its purpose, with the potential drawback that the coordination and communication between departments can be restricted by the organizational boundaries of having the various departments working separately.

c. A regional structure is used in organizations that operate in a wide geographic area and have separate smaller organizations (regional offices) to cover a range of services within the region, with the potential drawback of increasing costs and reducing consistency of service across regions.

d. A matrix structure is a hybrid of regional and functional structure and allows for the benefits of functional and regional structures to exist in one organization but the drawback of having dual reporting structures

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to organizational control choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organizational control is the process of establishing and maintaining authority over and throughout an enterprise.

b. An organizational control process within a larger enterprise typically requires the use of systems that assist a manager in analyzing considerable amounts of data about how the organization and its employees are functioning in order to make appropriate administrative decisions.

c. Organizational control typically involves four steps: establish standards; measure performance; compare performance to standards; and take corrective action as needed.

d. A well designed organizational control system is unlikely to have much effect on organizational responsiveness or morale.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to dynamic resource allocation choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Dynamic resource reallocation is shifting money, talent, and management attention to where they will deliver the most value.

b. McKinsey Managing Partner, Dominique Barton, suggests that, to keep up with changing technology and global pressures, public as well as private institutions should aim to reallocate about 10% of their resources each year.

c. Dynamic private sector companies typically reallocate about 10% of their resources each year.

d. Ultimately, even with the best intentions, resource reallocation can fall victim to organizational inertia and internal power dynamics and the challenge is particularly daunting in organizations where unit heads run their divisions like fiefdoms.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to organizational policies choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organizational policies are explicit statements describing expected behaviours of members of the organization.

b. In high performing organizations, most employees are familiar with most of the organization’s policies.

c. Organizational policies include principles, rules, and guidelines formulated or adopted by an organization to reach its long-term goals and typically published in a booklet or other form that is widely accessible.

d. Organizational policies are designed to influence and determine all major decisions and actions, and all activities take place within the boundaries set by them.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.11.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to administrative decentralization choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Administrative decentralization transfers responsibility for the planning, financing and management of certain public functions from the central government and its agencies to field units of government agencies, subordinate units or levels of government, semi-autonomous public authorities or corporations, or area-wide, regional or functional authorities.

b. The three major forms of administrative decentralization are deconcentration, delegation, and devolution.

c. Deconcentration redistributes decision making authority and financial and management responsibilities among different levels of the central government, for example, from the officials in the capital city to those working in regions, provinces or districts.

d. Administrative decentralization is usually cost neutral.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.01. Among statements a-d pertaining to Grace Skogstad’s four competing models of authority choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. State-centred political authority occurs when elected state actors exercise the political authority in a state.

b. Expert authority occurs when rule-making and standard setting is performed by non-elected officials.

c. Market-based authority occurs when private economic actors are empowered to provide goods and services formerly within the realm of public authorities.

d. Popular authority occurs when direct public input and deliberation is included in the decision-making process.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to new public management (NPM) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. NPM is a set of principles for government spending and activity that were developed as a response to the global financial crises of 2008-09.

b. NPM is a public sector management theory that seeks to make government more efficient and responsive by employing private sector techniques and creating market conditions for the delivery of public services.

c. NPM theorists suggest that because much of the civil service focuses on the delivery of core services that should be free of political machinations, governments should employ private sector management principles and try to create market conditions to make the delivery of services more efficient and autonomous.

d. NPM involves re-examining what government does and attempting to make it more strategic and results-oriented, increasing the flexibility of staffing, improving financial management, and relying increasingly on competitions and contracts.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to Kernaghan’s Bureaucratic/Post-bureaucratic Framework choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The bureaucratic organization is organization-centred with an emphasis on the needs of the organization itself while the post-bureaucratic organization is citizen-centred with an emphasis on quality service to citizens.

b. The bureaucratic organization is people-centred with an emphasis on an empowering and caring milieu for employees while the post-bureaucratic organization is rule-centred with an emphasis on rules, procedures, and constraints.

c. The bureaucratic organization is process-oriented with an emphasis on accountability for process while the post-bureaucratic organization is results-oriented with an emphasis on accountability for results.

d. The bureaucratic organization is budget-driven with programs financed largely from appropriations while the post-bureaucratic organization is revenue-driven with programs financed as far as possible on a cost recovery basis.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to Peter Aucoin’s new public governance choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. New public governance includes the concentration of power under the prime minister and his “court” of a few select ministers, political aides, and public servants.

b. New public governance includes a reassertion by political leaders of their democratic right to govern by taking control of the state apparatus.

c. New public governance includes a sharper distinction between the political and the administrative and an insistence that public servants behave is a strictly apolitical manner.

d. New public governance includes an increased number of political staff, and their enhanced roles and influence.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to networked governance choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Networked governance refers to the increasingly important set of interactions between officials at the local, provincial, national, and international levels.

b. Policymakers in advanced nations are coming to see the role of government as operating through networks of state and societal actors, rather than as command-and-control hierarchies.

c. Because lines of accountability within networks may be multiple, tangled and obscured, networked governance challenges established concepts of democratic government, with their emphasis on the ultimate exercise of sanction through democratic institutions.

d. The central problems in a networked governance model of the role of government are the location of responsibility order to ensure accountability, and the channeling of the information necessary to hold responsible agents accountable.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to digital government and e-government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Digital government is the use of digital technologies, as an integrated part of governments’ modernization strategies, to create public value.

b. Digital government relies on a digital government ecosystem comprised of government actors, non-governmental organisations, businesses, citizens’ associations and individuals which supports the production of and access to data, services and content through interactions with the government.

c. e-government is the use by the governments of information and communication technologies, and particularly the Internet, as a tool to achieve better government.

d. The greatest impediment advances in digital government is the lack of computer and Internet access by citizens.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to quasi-public corporation choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A quasi-public corporation is a type of corporation in the private sector that is backed by a branch of government that has a public mandate to provide a given service.

b. Employees of quasi-public corporations work for the government.

c. Most quasi-public corporations began as government agencies, but have since become separate entities.

d. It is not uncommon to see the shares of quasi-public corporations trade on major stock exchanges, which allows individual investors to gain exposure to the company’s profit.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to management differences between the public and private sectors choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Wallace Sayre famously quipped “public and private management are fundamentally alike in all unimportant respects.”

b. Unlike the private sector, the public sector often uses public authority in performing its functions whereby citizens can be forced to comply with decisions, pay taxes, have their property compulsorily acquired, and are subject to sanctions deriving in the end from the coercive powers of the state.

c. The public sector’s coercive element calls for fair and equitable treatment whereas private enterprises have great freedom to be arbitrary in dealing with different customers differently or in ignoring normal procedures.

d. It is easier to measure performance in the public sector than the private sector because everything comes down to the single indicator of electoral success.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to management consulting choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Management consulting is the practice of helping organizations to improve their performance, operating primarily through the analysis of existing organizational problems and the development of plans for improvement.

b. Management consultants develop unique methodologies and help clients avoid the dangers of trying to mimic “best practices.”

c. Management consultants may provide process analysis and operational improvement services.

d. Management consultants may provide strategy development organizational change management services.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to performance improvement and performance leadership choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Performance improvement usually involves measuring the output of a particular business process or procedure, then modifying the process or procedure to increase the output, increase efficiency, or increase the effectiveness of the process or procedure.

b. Performance improvement can be applied to either individual performance such as an employee or organizational performance such as a department of government.

c. Performance improvement should, in principle, be easier in the public sector than the private sector because the public sector relies more on fair and uniform processes.

d. In organizational development, performance improvement is organizational change in which the managers and governing body of an organization put into place and manage a program which measures the current level of performance of the organization and then generates ideas for modifying organizational behaviour and infrastructure which are put into place to achieve higher output.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to deliverology choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Deliverology is the science of delivering on goals and promises, particularly those made by governments.

b. Deliverology is a term associated with Sir Michael Barber, a former aide to UK prime minister Tony Blair, who led the Prime Minister’s Delivery Unit.

c. Deliverology relies on a clear identification of priorities, the setting of targets and the collection of data related to those priorities, and the exercise of central oversight through a unit reporting directly and regularly to the leader.

d. Deliverology is particularly applicable in a federal system of where the national government is largely uninvolved in direct service delivery.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to best practices advice choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Providing best practices advice on how to improve public management is one of the chief functions of international agencies such as the OECD and the World Bank.

b. International organizations such as the OECD and the World Bank are a key source of advice to governments about what allegedly “works.”

c. International organizations such as the OECD and the World Bank are crucial nodes in international networks where governmental and non-governmental actors meet, share ideas, and try to diffuse them globally as well as locally.

d. There is no well-organized source of best practices advice in the subject areas taught in public policy and public management programs.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to TQM, Six Sigma, and Lean choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. TQM, Six Sigma, and Lean are techniques and methodologies that have been developed for improving productivity and profitability of business enterprises and in which some public enterprises have shown an interest.

b. TQM is a business philosophy which explains the ways of managing people and business processes in order to ensure customer satisfaction at every stage of the business.

c. Six Sigma is a tool of measuring the quality that drives towards perfection focusing on continuous quality improvements for achieving near perfection by limiting the number of possible defects to a target number per million.

d. Lean is improving the flow process of any product during its production by focusing on reducing waste during any process and ultimately raising the speed of the process.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to public-private partnerships (PPP) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A PPP is a long-term contract between a private party and a government entity, for providing a public asset or service, in which the private party bears significant risk and management responsibility, and remuneration is linked to performance.

b. Creating a PPP is a relatively new phenomenon and there is not yet much comparative data on how and when it works best.

c. The OECD recommends that any PPP project should be treated transparently in the budget process such that the budget documentation should disclose all costs and contingent liabilities.

d. The OECD recommends that in implementing any PPP project government should guard against waste and corruption by ensuring the integrity of the procurement process and ensuring that the necessary procurement skills and powers are made available to the relevant authorities.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to the distinction between quasi-public corporations and public-private partnerships (PPP) choose the one that is most valid or choose e if all none is valid.

a. A PPP happens when an existing government agency becomes privatized and operates separately form the government; quasi public corporations are private agencies that operate under a branch of government..

b. Quasi-public corporations are private organizations that have signed long-term contract with the government to operate within government jurisdiction; PPPs are agreements between government and private sector to provide a public asset or service.

c. Most quasi-public corporations begin as government agencies but now operate as separate entities still operating under a branch of government; a PPP is an agreement between government and private corporations to provide a public asset or service.

d. Most PPPs are agreements between the government and private corporations for the government to take over the operations of the private corporation; a quasi public corporation was a government agency now operating in the private sector.

e. None of a-d is a valid statement.

AQ100.12.16. Among statements a-d pertaining to privatization choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Privatization is a material transaction by which the state’s ultimate ownership of corporate entities is reduced.

b. The definition of privatisation differs among OECD countries with some countries including only transactions subject to privatisation legislation while others include transfer of individual activities from the public to the private domain.

c. Privatization is a relatively new phenomenon and there is not yet much comparative data on how and when it works best.

d. The OECD says governments need to continually assess the pros and cons of privatising their state owned enterprises and this involves weighing the revenues to the public purse and the macroeconomic efficiency gains from privatisation against the net losses of public utility provided by the enterprise remaining in public as opposed to private ownership.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.17. Among statements a-d pertaining to red tape reduction choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Red tape reduction as a reduction of bureaucratic obstacles to action.

b. Many governments undertake reforms to improve their operations by reducing red tape.

c. Reforms to reduce tape to improve operations are usually undertaken as part of regulatory reform to address the systemic barriers that unnecessarily frustrate and burden business with additional delays, costs and bureaucracy.

d. Red tape generally includes filling out paperwork, obtaining licenses, having multiple people or committees approve a decision and various low-level rules that make conducting one’s affairs slower, more difficult, or both.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.18. Among statements a-d pertaining to service standards choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A service standard is a public commitment to a measurable level of performance that clients can expect under normal circumstances.

b. While service standards are common in the private sector they are rarely used in the public sector.

c. Service standards serve two key purposes: to provide staff with performance targets (“Phone must be answered within three rings”); and to inform clients what to expect (“Waiting time is less than 10 minutes”).

d. Service standards reinforce government accountability by making performance transparent, and increase the confidence of citizens in government by demonstrating the government’s commitment to service excellence.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.19. Among statements a-d pertaining to human resource management reforms choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Reforming human resource management practices is rarely included in efforts to modernize government.

b. Human resource management practices are recognized as a major institutional driver in the efficiency of the public sector.

c. Human resource management reforms are often driven by ideological considerations and management fads rather than by efficiency concerns.

d. Performance-related pay initiatives appear to have a low impact on staff motivation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.20. Among statements a-d pertaining to performance-related pay choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The term performance-related pay, also called pay for performance or simply performance pay, refers to a variety of systems linking pay to performance.

b. Performance-related pay schemes in the public sector usually take account of what has been called public service motivation – a pro-social, other-directed set of attitudes that embody a concern for the well being of others.

c. Compared to the private sector, employees in government agencies and bureaucracies face multiple principals – including citizens, immediate superiors, politicians and central agencies – all with legitimate expectations. Multiple principals means agents are evaluated from many vantage points. Not all principals are created equal, of course, and PFP arrangements remind agents about where their “real” interests lay. They cannot, however, extinguish multiple loyalties, particularly among those who exhibit PSM.

d. Surveys of research on the effectiveness of performance-related pay schemes typically find they can have deleterious effects on individual and group performance.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.21. Among statements a-d pertaining to public sector innovation choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public sector innovation refers to the development and adoption of new ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of government operations.

b. Most OECD governments encourage innovation in their public sectors and examples of innovations can be found on a web portal called Observatory of Public Sector Innovation.

c. In Canada, as part of Destination 2020, a blueprint for public service modernisation, the Clerk of the Privy Council committed to establishing a central innovation hub that provides expertise and advice on new and emerging approaches to policy and program challenges, such as behavioural economics and social finance, and helps help departments and agencies to test, document, accelerate, replicate and scale innovation across the public service.

d. The UK has introduced a What Works Network to improve the use of high quality evidence when government makes decisions about public services, and is claimed to be the first time any government has prioritized evidence to inform policy and practice through a national approach.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

AQ100.12.22. Among statements a-d pertaining to public sector leadership and communication choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. OECD has said that leadership is a critical component of good public governance and that effective communication is increasingly viewed as a crucial element in effective leadership in any organizational setting.

b. OECD member countries are finding that there is a gap between how their public sectors are, and how the interests of the nation need them to be now or in the future, and a common response seems to be the attempt to promote a certain kind of leadership.

c. Despite the crucial role played by leadership, for a variety of reasons the OECD does not see leadership ever becoming a “hot topic” in public management.

d. The leadership development strategies of OECD members are spread across a wide spectrum, ranging from countries with centralized systems (where future leaders are identified and nurtured from the early stage) to countries which use “market-type” approaches to developing and securing leaders.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last updated 18 March 2017.

Image: CBRE, at http://www.cbre.us/services/globalcorporateservices/Pages/public-institutions-education-services.aspx, accessed 5 August 2016.