Concept Cluster for Atlas Subjects Associated with PPG1002, 1003, 1004, 1008

… an Atlas Core Curriculum resource

Candidate concepts for required Toronto SPPG courses in microeconomics, macroeconomics, quantitative methods, and program evaluation

This table lists the concepts for which concept pages currently exist that are candidates for pre-class quizzes in four required, first-year courses in SPPG’s MPP. The concepts are organized under core topics in four core subjects: Economic Analysis; Macroeconomic Policy; Quantitative Methods; and Evaluation and Performance Measurement.

For a comparable display for the other four required first-year courses, see Concept Cluster for Atlas Subjects Associated with PPG1000, 1001, 1005, 1007.

NOTE: The concept pages for Quantitative Methods are to OnlineStatBook, Online Statistics Education – An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study, at

(PPG1002 Microeconomics)

The Study of Economics

Behavioural Economics


Economic Efficiency


Economics and Ideology


Incentives and Introduction to Economics

International Economics


Marginal and Marginalism

Market Failure


Political Economy

Public Finance

Public Choice Theory


There Ain’t No Such Thing As A Free Lunch – TANSTAAFL

Unintended Consequences


Welfare Economics

Supply, Demand, and Equilibrium

Change in Demand vs. Change in Quantity Demanded

Change in Supply vs. Change in Quantity Supplied

Consumer Surplus

Demand Curve

Demand Curve Shifts

Gains from Trade

Market Equilibrium

Normal Good vs. Inferior Good

Producer Surplus

Supply Curve

Supply Curve Shifts

Consumer Theory and Elasticity of Demand and Supply

Elasticity of Demand

Elasticity of Demand and Total Revenue

Elasticity of Supply

Midpoint Formula for Elasticity

Commodity Taxes and Subsidies

Benefit of a Subsidy – Economic vs. Legal Incidence

Burden of a Tax – Economic vs. Legal Incidence

Commodity Taxes


Tax Revenue and Deadweight Loss

Wage Subsidies vs. Minimum Wage

The Price System and Price Regulation

Price as Signal and Incentive

Markets Link Geographically

Markets Link Different Goods

Markets Link Over Time – Speculation


Prediction Markets

Price Ceilings

Rent Control

Price Floors

Minimum Wage

Airline Regulation and Wasteful Quality

Why Do Governments Enact Price Controls?

Price Controls and Communism

Trade, Adjustment, and Protectionism

Comparative Advantage

Trade and Differing Preferences

Trade and Specialization

Trade and Comparative Advantage

Supply and Demand Effects of Tariffs

Comparative Advantage

Trade and Differing Preferences

Trade and Specialization

Trade and Comparative Advantage

Supply and Demand Effects of Tariffs

Free Trade



Absolute Advantage

Division of Labour

Division of Knowledge

Pareto Efficiency






Command and Control Solutions vs. Taxes and Subsidies

Coase Theorem

Tradable Allowances

Private Cost

External Cost

Social Cost

Private Benefit

External Benefit

Private Benefit

Social Surplus

Bystanders Surplus

Efficient Equilibrium

Deadweight Loss

Pigouvian Tax

Pigouvian Subsidy

Transaction Costs

Producer Theory and Competition

Maximizing Profit under Competition

Entry, Exit, and Sunk Costs

Increasing Cost Industries

Constant Cost Industries

Industry Clusters and Decreasing Cost Industries

Minimization of Total Industry Costs of Production

Balance of Industries and Creative Destruction

Producer Theory

Producer Theory Calculus

Average Cost

Marginal Cost

Total Cost

Fixed Costs

Variable Costs

Total Revenue


Sunk Costs

Break-even Price

Normal Profit

Above-normal Profit

Perfect Competition

Production Possibility Frontier

Marginal Revenue

Creative Destruction

Monopoly and Price Discrimination

Maximizing Profit under Monopoly

Monopoly Pricing and Elasticity of Demand

Costs and Benefits of Monopoly

Price Discrimination



Monopoly Markup

Barriers to Entry



Market Power

Economies of Scale


Static Efficiency

Dynamic Efficiency


Perfect Price Discrimination

Labour Markets, Transfers, and Personal Taxes

Marginal Product of Labour

Human Capital and Signaling

Compensating Differentials

Unions and Wages

Derived Demand

Human Capital

Sheepskin (or Credential) Effects

Marginal Revenue Product of Labour

Public Goods and Commons Problems

Public Good

Club Good

Common Resource

Free Riding

Forced Rider

Excludable Good

Non-excludable Good

Rival Good

Non-rival Good

Tragedy of the Commons

Asymmetric Information, Signaling, and Game Theory

Asymmetric Information

Asymmetric Information and Insurance

Moral Hazard


Principal-Agent Problem

Adverse Selection

Propitious Selection

Game Theory

Prisoners’ Dilemma


Macroeconomic Policy
(PPG1003 Macroeconomics)

The Study of Macroeconomics

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)


National Spending vs Factor Income Components of GDP

Nominal vs. Real GDP

Real GDP Per Capita and the Standard of Living

Wealth of Nations and Economic Growth

Contributors to Growth

Growth Miracles and Growth Disasters

Growth Rates and National Wealth

Hockey Stick of Human Prosperity

Innovation and Growth

Ratio (Logarithmic) Scale

Rule of 70

Institutions and Growth

National Wealth

Growth, Capital Accumulation, and the Financial System

Physical Capital and Diminishing Returns

Solow Model and the Steady State

Solow Model of Economic Growth

Business Cycles and Unemployment

Aggregate Demand



Quantitative Methods
(PPG1005 Quantitative Methods)

The Study of Quantitative Methods

What are Statistics?

Importance of Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics



Levels of Measurement


Summation Notation

Linear Transformations


Describing Distributions

Qualitative Variables

Quantitative Variables

Stem and Leaf Displays


Frequency Polygons

Box Plots

Box Plot Demonstration

Bar Charts

Line Graphs

Dot Plots

Central Tendency

What is Central Tendency

Measures of Central Tendency

Median and Mean

Additional Measures

Comparing measures


Measures of Variability

Estimating Variance Simulation


Effects of Transformations

Variance Sum Law I

Bivariate Data

Introduction to Bivariate Data

Values of the Pearson Correlation

Guessing Correlations Simulation

Properties of Pearson’s r

Computing Pearson’s r

Restriction of Range

Variance Sum Law II


Introduction to Probability

Basic Concepts

Conditional Probability

Gambler’s Fallacy

Permutations and Combinations

Birthday Simulation

Binomial Distribution

Binomial Demonstration

Poisson Distribution

Multinomial Distribution

Hypergeometric Distribution

Base Rates

Bayes’ Theorem

Monty Hall Problem

Research Design

Scientific Method


Basics of Data Collection

Sampling Bias

Experimental Designs


Normal Distributions and Advanced Graphs

Introduction to Normal Distributions


Areas of Normal Distributions

Varieties of Normal Distributions

Standard Normal

Normal Approximation to the Binomial

Q-Q Plots

Contour Plots

3D Plots

Sampling Distributions

Introduction to Sampling

Sample Size

Central Limit Theorem

Sampling Distribution of the Mean

Sampling Distribution of Difference Between Means

Sampling Distribution of Pearson’s r

Sampling Distribution of a Proportion

Estimation and Hypothesis Testing

Introduction to Estimation

Degrees of Freedom

Characteristics of Estimators

Bias and Variability Simulation

Confidence Intervals

Introduction to Confidence Intervals

Confidence Interval for the Mean

t distribution

Confidence Interval Simulation

Confidence Interval for the Difference Between Means

Confidence Interval for Pearson’s Correlation

Confidence Interval for a Proportion

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing

Significance Testing

Type I and Type II Errors

One- and Two-Tailed Tests

Interpreting Significant Results

Interpreting Non-Significant Results

Steps in Hypothesis Testing

Significance Testing and Confidence Intervals


Tests of Means and Power

Single Mean

t Distribution Demo

Difference between Two Means (Independent Groups)

Robustness Simulation

All Pairwise Comparisons Among Means

Specific Comparisons

Difference between Two Means (Correlated Pairs)

Correlated t Simulation

Specific Comparisons (Correlated Observations)

Pairwise Comparisons (Correlated Observations)

Power and Null Hypothesis

Factors Affecting Power


Introduction to Simple Linear Regression

Linear Fit Demo

Partitioning Sums of Squares

Standard Error of the Estimate

Inferential Statistics for b and r

Influential Observations

Regression Toward the Mean

Introduction to Multiple Regression

Analysis of Variance

Introduction to ANOVA

ANOVA Designs

One-Factor ANOVA (Between-Subjects)

One-Way Comparisons

Multi-Factor ANOVA (Between-Subjects)

Unequal Sample Sizes

Tests Supplementing ANOVA

Within-Subjects ANOVA

Power of Within-Subjects Designs

Transformation, Chi Square, Distribution Free Tests, and Effect Size


Tukey’s Ladder of Powers

Box-Cox Transformations

Chi Square Distribution

One-Way Tables (Testing Goodness of Fit)

Testing Distributions Demo

Contingency Tables

2 x 2 Table Simulation

Benefits of Distribution-Free Tests

Randomization Tests – Association (Pearson’s r)

Randomized Tests – Contingency Tables (Fisher’s Exact Test)

Rank Randomization Tests – Two Conditions (Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon Rank Sum)

Rank Randomization Tests – Two or More Conditions (Kruskal-Wallis)

Rank Randomization Tests – Association (Spearman’s ρ)


Difference between Means

Variance Explained

Evaluation and

(PPG1008 Program Evaluation)

The Study of Evaluation and Performance Measurement

Policy Analysis and Policy Evaluation

Klitgaard’s Policy Analysis and Evaluation Version 2.0

Contrasting Purposes of Evaluation

Categories of Program Evaluation

Process Evaluation

Efficiency Evaluation

Impact Evaluation

Logic Models

Cost-Benefit Analysis in Evaluation

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

Discount Rate

Net Present Value (NPV)



Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified on 14 May 2018.