Quiz 8 – Twenty Concepts in Policy Analysis and Process

… an Atlas quiz for Atlas206 Internship Reading

StudyOfPolicyConcept comprehension questions on
Twenty Concepts in Policy Analysis and Process

Note: All 15 quizzes for Atlas206 Internship Reading are available at Concept Quizzes for Atlas206 Internship Reading.

CCQ206.08.01. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the term policy design choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Policy design is the process of choosing the most appropriate instrument to deal with the policy problem as it has been defined in order to achieve a given policy goal.

b. Policy design is a mix of inspiration and technique.

c. Policy design is about efficiency – getting the job done with the least resources – and explicitly sets aside considerations of political popularity and impacts on re-election.

d. While there is some agreement on at least the major policy instruments and their characteristics, there is little agreement (or knowledge) of how and when particular mixes of instruments should be used in policy design.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.02. Among the statements a-d pertaining to the term public policy choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public policy can be defined as a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem or interrelated set of problems.

b. Public policy can be defined as systematically using the state to affect peoples’ lives.

c. Public policy can be generally defined as a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives.

d. Successful public policy depends on the development and use of a sound evidence base; the understanding and managing the political context; and planning from the outset for how the policy will be delivered.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.03. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Pal’s Elements of Policy Content choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Leslie Pal describes the three key elements of policy content as Goals, Problem Definition, and Instruments.

b. Policy analysis is usually iterative – it moves through the loop of policy content elements several times, refining an understanding of any one element in light of the others.

c. There will be consistency between the different elements such that a definition of a problem should fit somehow with the instruments and goals.

d. When consistency is achieved among goals, problem definition, and instruments, little consideration is required of factors such as actors and related policy frameworks.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.04. Among the statements a-d pertaining to policy consistency choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Policies are expected to be consistent in three interrelated ways – internal consistency, vertical consistency, and horizontal consistency.

b. We expect policies to have an internal consistency among the three elements of problem definition, goals, and instruments.

c. We expect a policy to have vertical consistency in the sense that the programs and activities undertaken in its name are logically related to it.

d. Horizontal consistency, the expectation that what governments do in one field will not contradict what they do in another, will be found whenever governments operate with clear goals and consistent values.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.05. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Pal’s types of reasoning in policy analysis choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Pal’s four types of reasoning in policy analysis are normative, legal, logical, and empirical.

b. Normative reasoning analyzes policy in relation to impacts and effects, costs, and administration.

c. Legal reasoning analyzes policy in terms of jurisdiction and consistency with legislation or the Charter.

d. Logical reasoning analyzes policy in terms of internal, vertical, and horizontal consistency and whether it “makes sense.”

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.06. Among the statements a-d pertaining to policy analysis’s impact on policymaking choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The high point in the fortunes of policy analysis and scientific decisionmaking was in the 1960s, when the United States decided to adopt the Planning-Programming-Budgeting System (PPBS), later adopted in Canada as well, and then made program evaluation mandatory, thus setting off a boom in the industry in the 1970s.

b. Carol Weiss and her colleagues began a series of studies through the 1970s to assess the effect of policy analysis activity on the policy process and concluded that the “implications of explanatory studies and the recommendations from policy-oriented studies seemed to have little effect on either the day-today operations of program management or the long-term directions of public policy.”

c. The collapse of planned economies in the 1990s and 2008 financial crisis have reinforced the proposition that policy analysis has little relevance to future policy making.

d. Some scholars have argued that policy analysis, like the rest of the social sciences have an enlightenment function, providing broad ideas, concepts, insights, and theoretical perspectives and that the work may, in combination with other work with a similar theme and message, seep into the public consciousness.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.07. Among the statements a-d pertaining to policy capacity choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Policy capacity is the institutional ability to conduct policy analysis and implement its results effectively and efficiently.

b. The World Bank has stated that for human welfare to be advanced, the state’s capability – defined as the ability to undertake and promote collective actions efficiently – must be increased. This basic message translates into a two-part strategy to make every state a more credible, effective partner in its country’s development

c. A strategy is to raise state capability by reinvigorating public institutions, which means designing effective rules and restraints, to check arbitrary state actions and combat entrenched corruption.

d. Many states try to do too much with few resources and little capability, and often do more harm than good.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.08. Among the statements a-d pertaining to interests choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Theodore Benditt noted that some writers take the concept of interests to be the central notion in politics, and he enumerated seven accounts of interests in political theory.

b. Benditt’s seven accounts of interests in political theory include feelings or attitudes and wants.

c. Benditt’s seven accounts of interests in political theory include relationships or communities.

d. Benditt’s seven accounts of interests in political theory include changes that affect one advantageously or disadvantageously.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.09. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Pal’s Glossary of Conceptualizing Interests in Policymaking choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The iron triangle is the stable and cozy relationships among congressional committees, executive agencies, and economic interest groups.

b. A policy community can be viewed as the actors in a policy network, who share at least some common language and conceptual reference points but who may be opponents on the issue.

c. An advocacy coalition is a group of individuals and/or organizations that have agreed to support a position that advances the public interest rather than private interests.

d. An epistemic community is a concept originally developed in international relations to characterize the influence of international groups of scientific experts on policymaking.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.10. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Pal’s aspects of problem definition choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Leslie Pal says that policymaking is, in large measure, about trying to solve problems and so the nature of those problems – how they are defined – is central to the entire process.

b. Key aspects of problem definition include causality (what factors lie behind the problem) and severity (how bad is the problem likely to get).

c. Key aspects of problem definition include incidence (what is the scope of impact), novelty (is it new), and proximity (how close is the problem).

d. Key aspects of problem definition include crisis (how pressing is the problem), problem population (who will be targeted in the policy response), and solutions (what can be done).

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.11. Among the statements a-d pertaining to issue framing choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Issue framing is a way of depicting a policy issue or problem in broad and understandable if somewhat simplified terms.

b. The first dimension of issue framing is analytical and emphasizes the logical elements that make up an argument or claim.

c. The second dimension of issue framing is part of policy communications, combining effective arguments with powerful rhetorical tools such as metaphors and labels.

d. Issue framing cannot be applied to complex issues that cross multiple policy fields.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.12. Among the statements a-d pertaining to policy images choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Policy images are a mixture of empirical information and emotive appeals that explain an issue and justify the public policy response.

b. Most people, even in cases where they are quite interested in a given policy issue, will tend to summarize it using policy images.

c. A policy image is an identifiable method through which collective action is structured to address a public problem.

d. Policy images give a sense of the tone of the issue in positive or negative terms.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.13. Among the statements a-d pertaining to policy window choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Policy windows are defined as unpredictable openings in the policy process that create the possibility for influence over the direction and outcome of that process.

b. A great deal of the agenda-setting process is contingent on unpredictable factors and personalities – i.e., to the opening of policy windows.

c. Windows sometimes open regularly but who jumps through successfully or not is still a matter of chance and skill.

d. A policy window is a mixture of empirical information and emotive appeals that explain the issue and justify the public policy response.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.14. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Lasswell’s policy sciences choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The social sciences, particularly economics, political science, public administration, and planning, developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

b. Harold Lasswell (1902-1978) and his colleagues were among the first to advance the idea that these disciplines could be integrated into something distinct – the policy sciences.

c. Lasswell argued for a distinct role for policy analysts.

d. Lasswell argued that the policy sciences should integrate the other social sciences in a multidisciplinary enterprise devoted to dealing with public problems and the policy processes of democracy.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.15. Among the statements a-d pertaining to typologies of policy instruments choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Most classifications of policy instruments stress the degree of coercion involved.

b. A policy tool is defined as an identifiable method through which collective action is structured to address a public problem.

c. Policy instruments are defined as the set of techniques by which governmental authorities wield their power in attempting to ensure support and effect or prevent social change.

d. A policy instrument is defined as the process of choosing the most appropriate tool to deal with the policy problem as it has been defined.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.16. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Pal’s classification of policy instruments choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. For expenditure-based instruments, governments are not trying to achieve their objectives or outcomes by changing the information that undergirds behaviour, but rather the calculus of costs, benefits, and financial resources.

b. With regulatory policy instruments, governments achieve the conditions or service goals they have in mind by marshalling their own resources toward those ends.

c. Doing nothing may appear as a nondecision, however, a deliberate choice not to intervene, made after an analysis of the problem, should be considered a policy decision.

d. Information-based policy instruments include government-directed attempts at influencing people through transfer of knowledge, communication of reasoned argument, and moral suasion in order to achieve a policy result.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.17. Among the statements a-d pertaining to policy design and social values choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Pal suggests that there does appear to be a tilt – though only a slight one and with some contradictions – to the social values reflected in the way in which instruments and policy design have been chosen.

b. The tilt of the toolbox has been to maximize individual choice in programming and societal co-production with more careful, if possibly more extreme, government intervention than anything seen in the recent past.

c. Community and social cohesion have become watchwords for government as they move towards a society with less intervention and more individual choice.

d. Policy implementation that depends on market mechanisms and pure individual choice will encourage citizens to see their relations to government and to each other as primarily ones of exchange.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.18. Among the statements a-d pertaining to rational decision making model choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The steps in the rational model are choosing models, identifying needs, aligning objectives with needs, and selecting options.

b. The rational model has embedded within it a strong concern with efficiency.

c. Pure rationality in decisionmaking is not possible and people have to make decisions under various constraints.

d. Making decisions rationally is not the same as making reasonable decisions – a reasonable or good decision is defined less by the process that produced it than by its appropriateness as a solution to the initial problem.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.19. Among the statements a-d pertaining to Lindblom’s incrementalism and muddling through choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Charles Lindblom argued that the unforgiving strictures of rational decisionmaking were so unrealistic in terms of the cognitive and political situation faced by most decisionmakers that they made choices by “muddling through.”

b. Lindblom argued that in the real world of politics and administration there are multiple decisionmakers with conflicting perspectives and priorities.

c. Lindblom argued that policymaking is a struggle over the criteria of social classification, the boundaries of problem categories, and the intersubjective interpretation of common experiences.

d. Lindblom argued that decisions get made on the basis of successive limited comparisons.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

CCQ206.08.20. Among the statements a-d pertaining to postmodernist critiques of rational decision making choose the one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Recent research suggests that if you can assemble a diverse group of people who possess varying degrees of knowledge and insight, you’re better off entrusting it with major decisions rather than leaving them in the hands of one or two people.

b. Postmodern analysis entails, among other things, the critical study of the structure of argument and discourse in policy analysis, the role of values, and the deep impact of positivism through its associated logic of technocratic mastery.

c. The rational model presumes that there are such things as “facts,” but postmodernists argue that facts are always constructed through values and perceptions, or more accurately, through deep theories that structure our cognition of reality.

d. Postmodernist scholars suggest that that decisions get made on the basis of “successive limited comparisons.”

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified on 21 May 2017.

Image: LookForDiagnosis, at https://lookfordiagnosis.com/mesh_info.php?term=policy&lang=1, accessed 13 March 2016.