Quiz 7 – Fifty Concepts in Governance and Institutions

… an Atlas quiz for Atlas206 Internship Reading

GovandInstConcept comprehension questions on
Fifty Concepts in Governance and Institutions

Note: All 15 quizzes for Atlas206 Internship Reading are available at Concept Quizzes for Atlas206 Internship Reading.

CCQ206.07.01. Recognizing the competing values in governance and institutions among the pairs listed in a-d choose the one least in tension or choose e if all are in tension.

a. Equity – Efficiency

b. Initiative – Effectiveness

c. Impartiality – Discretion

d. Equality – Merit

e. In all of the pairs listed in a-d there is substantial tension.

CCQ206.07.02. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term governance choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Governance means decision making in a sovereign state.

b. Governance encompasses all processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, market, or network, whether over a family, tribe, formal or informal organization, or territory, and whether through laws, norms, power, or language.

c. The use of the term governance is associated with a shift from hierarchy to markets and networks.

d. Governance refers to the processes and interactions through which highly diverse social interests and actors produce the policies, practices, and effects of governing.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.03. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term public interest choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public interest is the amount owed each year on the public debt of a government.

b. Public interest is the benefit or advantage of the community as a whole.

c. Public interest is the welfare of the general public in which the whole society has a stake and which warrants recognition, promotion, and protection by the government and its agencies.

d. Public interest is a common concern among citizens in the management and affairs of local, state, and national government. 

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.04. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term public management choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public management is the work of mobilizing others to accomplish socially useful purposes and advance the public interest.

b. Public management is a nexus where politics, law, and administration necessarily engage each other.

c. Public management means adapting private sector management practices to the public sector.

d. Public management means performing certain tasks related to policy implementation in publicly supported programs.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.05. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term Crown prerogative choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Crown prerogative is the source for the following executive powers in Canada: foreign affairs (e.g., treaty-making and diplomatic appointments); defence and the armed forces (e.g., sending peacekeepers abroad).

b. Crown prerogative is the source for the following executive powers in Canada: passports, pardons, and the prerogative of mercy; the hiring and dismissal of certain public officials; honours and titles; copyright over government publications; the law of heraldry; incorporating companies by royal charter; collecting tolls from bridges and ferries; and the right to proclaim holidays.

c. The scope of Crown prerogative in Canada has increased over time.

d. Crown prerogative is the residue of discretionary or arbitrary authority, which at any given time is legally left in the hands of the Crown.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.06. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term political executive choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In a Westminster system, the political executive comprises the Prime Minister or Premier, Cabinet and the most senior members of the continuing civil service.

b. In a Westminster system, the political executive comprises the Prime Minister or Premier and Cabinet and the political staff that support them.

c. In a Westminster system, the political executive includes the Prime Minster’s (or Premier’s) Office and ministers’ offices.

d. The political executive directs the government of the day, while the civil service, like the Crown itself, enjoys continuity through transitions of government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.07. Among statements a-d pertaining to Prime Ministerial prerogatives choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Prime Ministerial prerogatives are Crown prerogatives that are exercised on the advice of the Prime Minister, in contrast to the advice of the Cabinet (Ministers in Council).

b. Much of the power enjoyed by a Prime Minister stems from his or her authority to form the Cabinet since it is the Prime Minister who decides who will actually make up the Cabinet, and what portfolios will be assigned to each person.

c. The Prime Minister also has the power to determine who holds many key offices in the public service, including Senators, Supreme Court judges, deputy ministers, and heads of government agencies, boards, and corporations.

d. The Prime Minister is often seen as the nation’s chief diplomat in an era of summit diplomacy when Heads of Governments regularly meet with one another on a face-to-face basis.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.08. Among statements a-d pertaining to administrative law choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Administrative law deals with the administration of justice and in Canada it provides all persons with due process, regardless of their citizenship.

b. The major purpose of administrative law is to ensure that the activities of government are authorized by Parliament or by provincial legislatures, and that laws are implemented and administered in a fair and reasonable manner.

c. Administrative law is based on the principle that government action, whatever form it takes, must be legal, and that citizens who are affected by unlawful acts of government officials must have effective remedies.

d. Canadian courts will only exercise their control over administrative authorities if the authority exceeds its jurisdiction, if it makes a decision which is patently unreasonable, or if it follows improper or unfair procedures.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.09. Among statements a-d pertaining to impartiality choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The Canadian Superior Courts Judges Association states that it is not enough for the judiciary, as an institution, to be independent – individual judges must be seen to be objective and impartial and this means that in their personal lives, judges must avoid words, actions or situations that might make them appear to be biased or disrespectful of the laws they are sworn to uphold.

b. For public servants, the doctrine of impartiality means that one must serve the Government, whatever its political persuasion, to the best of one’s ability in a way which maintains political impartiality no matter what one’s own political beliefs are.

c. For public servants, the doctrine of impartiality means that one must deal equally with everyone, and with every organisation, without prejudice, favour or disfavour.

d. For public servants, the doctrine of impartiality permits one to act in a way which deserves and retains the confidence of Ministers, while at the same time ensuring that one will be able to establish the same relationship with those whom one may be required to serve in some future Government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.10. Among statements a-d pertaining to viewpoint diversity choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Advocates of viewpoint diversity within the academy would like to see greater emphasis in both teaching and research on the perspectives of the many underprivileged groups whose concerns are not yet adequately addressed by mainstream society.

b. Advocates of viewpoint diversity claim that scholarship in the social sciences and related fields such as law and public policy would be better served if there were greater diversity of viewpoints among researchers.

c. Advocates of viewpoint diversity claim that some ideas become widely accepted without any real evidence because they support particular political or moral agendas.

d. Advocates of viewpoint diversity claim that the following ideas have become entrenched even though the evidence suggests that they are highly questionable: humans are a blank slate and human nature does not exist; and all differences between human groups are caused by differential treatment of those groups.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.11. Among statements a-d pertaining to centre vs. periphery choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. There are a many ways in which the perspective of “the centre” of government differs from those of other parts of government.

b. The centre vs. periphery dynamic is seen in how national vs. regional interests play out around the Cabinet table.

c. The centre vs. periphery dynamic is seen in how officials in staff positions interact with those in line positons.

d. The centre vs. periphery dynamic is seen in how central agencies interact with operating ministries.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.12. Among statements a-d pertaining to guardians vs. spenders choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The guardian-spender conception of an enduring dynamic within government was articulated in 1964 by Aaron Wildavsky.

b. Participants in the budgetary process tend to be either guardians of the treasury or advocates of program spending.

c. The guardian vs. spender roles are attached to institutional positions with guardians from central agencies controlling the budget and spending advocates from program agencies.

d. Successful prime ministers try to design systems to downplay the guardian vs spender dynamic within government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.13. Among statements a-d pertaining to staff vs. line positions choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The differences in roles and perspectives between staff (usually at headquarters) and line (often in regional offices) are among the most enduring institutional dynamics in government.

b. People in staff positions try to encourage those in line positions to take more initiative to respond in a timely way to variations in local circumstances.

c. People in staff positions try to look at the big picture and how all the pieces fit together.

d. People in line positions resent attempts by staff analysts to impose standardized processes to which all units must follow.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.14. Among statements a-d pertaining to regionalism choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Regionalism is the distinctive local character of a geographic area, or a people’s perception of and identification with such places.

b. In Canada, there was no continuous, expansive national experience with the land. One patch would fill up, then people would emigrate to a new area. Different patches were settled at different times by people of different backgrounds who depended on different technologies and economies.

c. In Canada, one of the most successful tools for combatting regionalism was the imposition of high tariffs on U.S. goods which allowed Canadian manufacturing to flourish and connect with new buyers from across the country.

d. Many political scientists have observed that Canadian politics is more regional than in many other advanced democracies.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.15. Among statements a-d pertaining to Cabinet solidarity and secrecy choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In the Westminster form of government, a minister is not expected to seek Cabinet agreement on a decision provided the legislative authority for the decision lies clearly within the minister’s portfolio.

b. Regardless of which ministers (or how many) are involved in making a decision, the Cabinet operates on the principle of Cabinet solidarity meaning that all Cabinet ministers must publicly defend all Cabinet policies or resign.

c. In addition to the practice of solidarity, the Cabinet also operates under the principle of Cabinet secrecy or confidentiality such that Cabinet ministers are not to disclose information about Cabinet deliberations in order to protect Cabinet deliberations (and possible discord) from being exploited by Opposition parties and the media.

d. In Canada, Cabinet documents are not normally made public for a period of 20 years.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.16. Among statements a-d pertaining to speaking truth to power choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Speaking truth to power is a term used to capture the role of public servants in a Westminster system of government to advise the political executive without fear or favour.

b. Speaking truth to power is a concept with little direct relevance to public servants who are not involved in the process of preparing advice for Ministers.

c. Speaking truth to power is an obligation to tell people not what they want to hear, but rather what they need to hear.

d. Speaking truth to power includes recognizing when the argument is over and not to keep on fighting after the issue has been decided.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.17. Among statements a-d pertaining to policy advisory systems choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The policy advisory system comprises an interlocking set of actors with a unique configuration in each sector and jurisdiction, who provide information, knowledge, and recommendations for action to policymakers.

b. In modern Westminster governments the executive advisory landscape is a complex web of policy advisory sources, many of which exist outside of government.

c. Given the number of advisory sources, it is useful to conceive of partisan advisers as one component in an overall policy advisory system.

d. Sources of policy advice over which the government has relatively high control include statutory authorities, community groups, and trade unions.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.18. Among statements a-d pertaining to the Cabinet decision-making system choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A sound Cabinet decision-making manages the flow of information and ideas to help secure agreement among ministers on the government’s priorities and to provide an effective forum for ministerial debate on issues of general interest and for expression of diverse regional interests.

b. There are no ideal models of Cabinet decision-making that exist independently from the people who use the system, and the circumstances in which they work.

c. The undisputed constant is that Cabinet, and its related structures are above all the Prime Minister’s own instruments for achieving his government’s goals. They must be both functional and comfortable for the Prime Minister, as well as for Cabinet colleagues and the officials who serve them.

d. Given the importance of the Cabinet decision-making system to the maintenance of Cabinet solidarity, many Canadian prime ministers have used a consensus-based process to establish the system that best suits their government. This is one of the most important tasks following the swearing in of Ministers and typically involves discussions with key ministers and at Cabinet over the first few weeks of government.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.19. Among statements a-d pertaining to Cabinet documents choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Cabinet documents are documents that, if disclosed, would reveal any consideration or deliberation of Cabinet, or otherwise prejudice the confidentiality of Cabinet considerations, deliberations or operations.

b. Cabinet documents include submissions, submitted or proposed to be submitted to Cabinet; Cabinet agenda, notice of meetings and business lists for meetings; and minutes and decisions of Cabinet.

c. Cabinet documents do not include appendices to Cabinet submissions that consist purely of analysis of publicly available material and which do not reach recommendations.

d. The instructions for the preparation of Cabinet materials for the Government of Canada are publicly available on the Privy Council Office website.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.20. Among statements a-d pertaining to the political aide choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Political aides, also called political staffers, are employees who are hired and fired by the minister, or the prime minister, whose salaries and benefits are paid from government revenues, but who are not part of the regular public service and are permitted to be explicitly political.

b. Political aides are able to draft speeches, press releases and other documents that conform to the overall political direction of the government.

c. Political aides provide advice to the minister about pending policy matters or cabinet or parliamentary business that must be managed in accordance with the government’s political environment.

d. Most functions performed by political aides could, from a constitutional and legal perspective, be assigned to non-partisan public servants but it would be more costly to do so.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.21. Among statements a-d pertaining to the constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service holds that public servants are appointed and promoted on the basis of merit rather than of party affiliation or contributions.

b. The constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service holds that public servants do not engage in partisan political activities and do not express publicly their personal views on government policies or administration.

c. The constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service holds that public servants provide forthright and objective advice to their political masters in private and in confidence; in return, political executives protect the anonymity of public servants by publicly accepting responsibility for departmental decisions.

d. The constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service holds that public servants execute policy decisions loyally, irrespective of the philosophy and programs of the party in power and regardless of their personal opinions; as a result, public servants enjoy security of tenure during good behaviour and satisfactory performance

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.22. Among statements a-d pertaining to the ministerial responsibility choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The principle of ministerial responsibility holds that if civil servants carry out the minister’s orders, or act in accordance with the minister’s policy, it is for the minister and not for the civil servants to take any blame.

b. Ministerial responsibility means that a minister must resign if a serious and avoidable error occurs within the government portfolio which the minister heads.

c. Traditionally, ministerial responsibility has been viewed as the most important and most contentious of Westminster government conventions. But it is rarely defined, and this lack of a shared understanding of its requirements permits confusing, creative, and misleading interpretations of its meaning.

d. The constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service is part of what is sometimes referred to in the public administration literature as the iron triangle of conventions consisting of political neutrality, ministerial responsibility, and public service anonymity.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.23. Among statements a-d pertaining to the political neutrality of public servants choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Political neutrality is a constitutional convention which provides that public servants should avoid activities likely to impair, or seem to impair, their political impartiality or the political impartiality of the public service.

b. The constitutional convention of a politically neutral civil service is part of what is sometimes referred to in the public administration literature as the ‘iron triangle’ of conventions consisting of political neutrality, ministerial responsibility, and public service anonymity.

c. The convention of political neutrality does not apply to public service unions and it is widely accepted that if a public service union actively supports a political party it does not impede the ability of individual union members to perform their jobs in a politically neutral manner.

d. The fact that political neutrality of public servants is not part of the written constitution does not detract from their centrality to Canada’s constitutional system.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.24. Among statements a-d pertaining to the public service anonymity choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public service anonymity is the convention that ministers answer to Parliament and to the public for government actions without naming the public servants who provided advice or who carried out the administrative action.

b. The constitutional convention of public service anonymity has been strengthened by the clear rules set out in legislation on the duties of the accounting officer.

c. The anonymity of the civil service is linked to two concepts: permanence and neutrality. Civil servants, many of whom remain in their jobs whilst serving numerous governments, are thus likely to have to give advice to governments of different political parties, who may have different attitudes to policy. The advice they give needs to be given to ministers both freely and also without fear of adverse public or political reactions and without fear of future career damage.

d. The anonymity of the civil service is linked to the concept of ministerial responsibility, whereby the convention is for the minister to accept responsibility for their actions and decisions and those of their departments.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.25. Among statements a-d pertaining to the UK Civil Service Skills and Knowledge Framework choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. UK civil service policy professionals are expected to be able to consider and balance evidence, politics, and delivery at whatever stage the policy is at.

b. UK civil service policy professionals are expected to be able to understand and manage the political context by monitoring the political context and giving timely, honest, objective and impartial advice and recommendations to respond to the changing context in which Ministers operate.

c. UK civil service policy professionals are expected to be able to respond to the change in relationship with ministers at different stages of policy development; balancing the political view with other considerations.

d. UK civil service policy professionals are expected to be able to support ministers’ engagement with parliament and enable public accountability in their area.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.26. Among statements a-d pertaining to the intergovernmental relations choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. In Canada, intergovernmental relations typically refer to the relations among the various governments within a country and in Canada they usually refer to federal-provincial-territorial relations.

b. Canada, like most federations, has not formally anchored its intergovernmental structures and processes in its Constitution so that intergovernmental mechanisms have tended to evolve in response to changing political dynamics.

c. Intergovernmental relations is becoming markedly less important in Canada as government’s proportion of overall economic activity declines.

d. Intergovernmental relations remain important because central and provincial government activities are intertwined in a pattern of shared and overlapping responsibilities, shared authority and shared funding in many areas of public policy.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.27. Among statements a-d pertaining to the multilateral collaboration with diffuse reciprocity model choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Multilateral collaboration with diffuse reciprocity is characterized by a high level of federal-provincial-territorial engagement based on equality of orders and norms of co-ownership of policy field through strong intergovernmental institutions.

b. Multilateral collaboration with diffuse reciprocity cannot work at the level of officials if there is not a commitment to collaborate at the political level.

c. One requirement for multilateral collaboration with diffuse reciprocity is a high-level of trust among the actors involved such that there is a genuine commitment and acceptance of a set of consultative norms.

d. Collaborative intergovernmental relations involve a demonstrable commitment to the principle of diffuse reciprocity: that is, to an outcome that will eventually yield a rough equivalency of benefits for all parties over time.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.28. Among statements a-d pertaining to unilateral action with particular interests model choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Unilateral action with particular interests by one government or another is becoming more prevalent in Canada, partly due to increased fiscal constraints and shorter news cycles.

b. The unilateral action with particular interests model is characterized by a strong sense that a government can legitimately act on its own in a policy area, even if it impacts another government without consultation.

c. Unilateral action can take two broad forms: governments undertaking the development and implementation of policy in an area understood as largely within their exclusive responsibility; or, one order of government unilaterally taking action understanding that it will significantly impact the other order of government.

d. The line between the two aspects of unilateralism is not as clear as it may seem: despite the formally exclusive nature of most federal-provincial areas of responsibility, there is widespread recognition in practice that there is considerable overlap.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.29. Among statements a-d pertaining to machinery of municipal government one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. The basic structure of municipal government is simpler than that found at the provincial and federal levels because there are no separate legislative and executive branches of government at the municipal level.

b. Municipal responsibilities are concentrated in the elected council and are carried out by appointed staff who are mostly organized into a number of functionally specialized departments.

c. Municipal councils consist of a head (known as warden or chair in counties and other upper tier governments, as mayor in cities and towns, and as reeve, chair, or overseer in villages and townships) and a widely varying number of councillors.

d. Most Canadian cities use the “council manger system” separating the policy and administrative activities of the municipality and involves the appointment of a professional administrator (the manager) to whom is delegated complete responsibility for administering the programs of the municipality, including coordination and supervision of all staff.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.30. Among statements a-d pertaining to multilevel governance in cities choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Multilevel governance as a mode of policy making that involves complex interactions among multiple levels of government and social forces.

b. Multilevel governance as it has emerged in Canada’s big cities rests on the premise that the policy concerns of nested layers of authority in the Canadian federal system are interdependent and thus require ongoing multilevel coordination.

c. Many of the multilevel policy successes hinge on the development of collaboration agreements or collaborative institutions that limit inter-agent transaction costs and help manage the agenda instability that so often threatens the sustainability of multilevel policy initiatives.

d. As multilevel governance evolves in Canada there will be little or no need for constitutional changes or dramatic provincial measures to transfer more formal authority to cities.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.31. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term organizational behaviour choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organizational behaviour is the field of study that investigates how organizational structures, as opposed to human preferences, affect the actions of the organization as a whole.

b. Organizational behaviour studies the impact individuals, groups, and structures have on human behaviour within organizations.

c. Organizational behaviour is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication, and management.

d. Organizational behavior complements organizational theory, which focuses on organizational and intra-organizational topics, and complements human-resource studies, which is more focused on everyday business practices.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.32. Among statements a-d pertaining to the term organizational theory choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organizational theory is the set of interrelated concepts and definitions that explain the behaviour of individuals or groups or subgroups who interact with each other to perform the activities intended towards the accomplishment of a common goal.

b. Prominent organizational theories have included scientific management theory, administrative theory, and bureaucratic theory.

c. Scientific management theory is known for its application of engineering science at the production floor or the operating levels and is sometimes called Taylorism after its major contributor, Fredrick Winslow Taylor.

d. Bureaucratic theory is related to the structure and administrative process of the organization and is associated with Max Weber, who described the bureaucratic organization is the most rational means to exercise control over the individual workers.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.33. Among statements a-d pertaining to Weber’s theory of bureaucracy choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Weber’s bureaucratic model includes continuous learning and adaptation to changing circumstances.

b. Weber’s bureaucratic model includes rigid division of labor which clearly identifies the regular tasks and duties of the particular bureaucratic system.

c. Weber’s bureaucratic model includes firmly established chains of command, and the duties and capacity to coerce others to comply is described by regulation.

d. Weber’s bureaucratic model includes regular and continuous execution of the assigned duties by hiring people with particular qualifications which are certified.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.34. Among statements a-d pertaining to organizational culture choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organizational culture is the collection of values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization.

b. Organizational culture is organic in nature and remains largely unaffected by actions and initiatives taken by senior management.

c. Organizational culture includes an organization’s expectations, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it together, and is expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations.

d. Organizational culture is based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written and unwritten rules that have been developed over time and are considered valid.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.35. Among statements a-d pertaining to organizational control choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organizational control is the process of establishing and maintaining authority over and throughout an enterprise.

b. An organizational control process within a larger enterprise typically requires the use of systems that assist a manager in analyzing considerable amounts of data about how the organization and its employees are functioning in order to make appropriate administrative decisions.

c. Organizational control typically involves four steps: establish standards; measure performance; compare performance to standards; and take corrective action as needed.

d. A well designed organizational control system is unlikely to have much effect on organizational responsiveness or morale.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.36. Among statements a-d pertaining to organizational policies choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Organizational policies are explicit statements describing expected behaviours of members of the organization.

b. In high performing organizations, most employees are familiar with most of the organization’s policies.

c. Organizational policies include principles, rules, and guidelines formulated or adopted by an organization to reach its long-term goals and typically published in a booklet or other form that is widely accessible.

d. Organizational policies are designed to influence and determine all major decisions and actions, and all activities take place within the boundaries set by them.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.37. Among statements a-d pertaining to new public management (NPM) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. NPM is a set of principles for government spending and activity that were developed as a response to the global financial crises of 2008-09.

b. NPM is a public sector management theory that seeks to make government more efficient and responsive by employing private sector techniques and creating market conditions for the delivery of public services.

c. NPM theorists suggest that because much of the civil service focuses on the delivery of core services that should be free of political machinations, governments should employ private sector management principles and try to create market conditions to make the delivery of services more efficient and autonomous.

d. NPM involves re-examining what government does and attempting to make it more strategic and results-oriented, increasing the flexibility of staffing, improving financial management, and relying increasingly on competitions and contracts.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.38. Among statements a-d pertaining to networked governance choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Networked governance refers to the increasingly important set of interactions between officials at the local, provincial, national, and international levels.

b. Policymakers in advanced nations are coming to see the role of government as operating through networks of state and societal actors, rather than as command-and-control hierarchies.

c. Because lines of accountability within networks may be multiple, tangled and obscured, networked governance challenges established concepts of democratic government, with their emphasis on the ultimate exercise of sanction through democratic institutions.

d. The central problems in a networked governance model of the role of government are the location of responsibility order to ensure accountability, and the channeling of the information necessary to hold responsible agents accountable.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.39. Among statements a-d pertaining to digital government and e-government choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Digital government is the use of digital technologies, as an integrated part of governments’ modernization strategies, to create public value.

b. Digital government relies on a digital government ecosystem comprised of government actors, non-governmental organisations, businesses, citizens’ associations and individuals which supports the production of and access to data, services and content through interactions with the government.

c. e-government is the use by the governments of information and communication technologies, and particularly the Internet, as a tool to achieve better government.

d. The greatest impediment to advances in digital government is the lack of computer and Internet access by citizens.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.40. Among statements a-d pertaining to quasi-public corporation choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A quasi-public corporation is a type of corporation in the private sector that is backed by a branch of government that has a public mandate to provide a given service.

b. Employees of quasi-public corporations work for the government.

c. Most quasi-public corporations began as government agencies, but have since become separate entities.

d. It is not uncommon to see the shares of quasi-public corporations trade on major stock exchanges, which allows individual investors to gain exposure to the company’s profit.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.41. Among statements a-d pertaining to management differences between the public and private sectors choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Wallace Sayre famously quipped “public and private management are fundamentally alike in all unimportant respects.”

b. Unlike the private sector, the public sector often uses public authority in performing its functions whereby citizens can be forced to comply with decisions, pay taxes, have their property compulsorily acquired, and are subject to sanctions deriving in the end from the coercive powers of the state.

c. The public sector’s coercive element calls for fair and equitable treatment whereas private enterprises have great freedom to be arbitrary in dealing with different customers differently or in ignoring normal procedures.

d. It is easier to measure performance in the public sector than the private sector because everything comes down to the single indicator of electoral success.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.42. Among statements a-d pertaining to management consulting choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Management consulting is the practice of helping organizations to improve their performance, operating primarily through the analysis of existing organizational problems and the development of plans for improvement.

b. Management consultants specialize in developing unique methodologies to help clients avoid the dangers of trying to mimic “best practices.

c. Management consultants may provide process analysis and operational improvement services.

d. Management consultants may provide strategy development organizational change management services.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.43. Among statements a-d pertaining to performance improvement and performance leadership choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Performance improvement usually involves measuring the output of a particular business process or procedure, then modifying the process or procedure to increase the output, increase efficiency, or increase the effectiveness of the process or procedure.

b. Performance improvement can be applied to either individual performance such as an employee or organizational performance such as a department of government.

c. Performance improvement should, in principle, be easier in the public sector than the private sector because the public sector relies more on fair and uniform processes.

d. In organizational development, performance improvement is organizational change in which the managers and governing body of an organization put into place and manage a program which measures the current level of performance of the organization and then generates ideas for modifying organizational behaviour and infrastructure which are put into place to achieve higher output.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.44. Among statements a-d pertaining to deliverology choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Deliverology is the science of delivering on goals and promises, particularly those made by governments.

b. Deliverology is a term associated with Sir Michael Barber, a former aide to UK prime minister Tony Blair, who led the Prime Minister’s Delivery Unit.

c. Deliverology relies on a clear identification of priorities, the setting of targets and the collection of data related to those priorities, and the exercise of central oversight through a unit reporting directly and regularly to the leader.

d. Deliverology is particularly applicable in a federal system of where the national government is largely uninvolved in direct service delivery.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.45. Among statements a-d pertaining to public-private partnerships (PPP) choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A PPP is a long-term contract between a private party and a government entity, for providing a public asset or service, in which the private party bears significant risk and management responsibility, and remuneration is linked to performance.

b. Creating a PPP is a relatively new phenomenon and there is not yet much comparative data on how and when it works best.

c. The OECD recommends that any PPP project should be treated transparently in the budget process such that the budget documentation should disclose all costs and contingent liabilities.

d. The OECD recommends that in implementing any PPP project government should guard against waste and corruption by ensuring the integrity of the procurement process and ensuring that the necessary procurement skills and powers are made available to the relevant authorities.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.46. Among statements a-d pertaining to privatization choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Privatization is a material transaction by which the state’s ultimate ownership of corporate entities is reduced.

b. The definition of privatization differs among OECD countries with some countries including only transactions subject to privatization legislation while others include transfer of individual activities from the public to the private domain.

c. Privatization is a relatively new phenomenon and there is not yet much comparative data on how and when it works best.

d. The OECD says governments need to continually assess the pros and cons of privatizing their state owned enterprises and this involves weighing the revenues to the public purse and the macroeconomic efficiency gains from privatization against the net losses of public utility provided by the enterprise remaining in public as opposed to private ownership.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.47. Among statements a-d pertaining to service standards choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. A service standard is a public commitment to a measurable level of performance that clients can expect under normal circumstances.

b. While service standards are common in the private sector they are rarely used in the public sector.

c. Service standards serve two key purposes: to provide staff with performance targets (“Phone must be answered within three rings”); and to inform clients what to expect (“Waiting time is less than 10 minutes”).

d. Service standards reinforce government accountability by making performance transparent, and increase the confidence of citizens in government by demonstrating the government’s commitment to service excellence.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.48. Among statements a-d pertaining to human resource management reforms choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Reforming human resource management practices is rarely included in efforts to modernize government.

b. Human resource management practices are considered to be a major institutional driver in the efficiency of the public sector.

c. Human resource management reforms are often driven by ideological considerations and management fads rather than by efficiency concerns.

d. Performance-related pay initiatives appear to have a low impact on staff motivation.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.49. Among statements a-d pertaining to public sector innovation choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. Public sector innovation refers to the development and adoption of new ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of government operations.

b. Most OECD governments encourage innovation in their public sectors and examples of innovations can be found on a web portal called Observatory of Public Sector Innovation.

c. In Canada, as part of Destination 2020, a blueprint for public service modernisation, the Clerk of the Privy Council committed to establishing a central innovation hub that provides expertise and advice on new and emerging approaches to policy and program challenges, such as behavioural economics and social finance, and helps help departments and agencies to test, document, accelerate, replicate and scale innovation across the public service.

d. The UK has introduced a What Works Network to improve the use of high quality evidence when government makes decisions about public services, and is claimed to be the first time any government has prioritized evidence to inform policy and practice through a national approach.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

CCQ206.07.50. Among statements a-d pertaining to public sector leadership and communication choose one that is invalid or choose e if all are reasonably valid.

a. OECD has said that leadership is a critical component of good public governance and that effective communication is increasingly viewed as a crucial element in effective leadership in any organizational setting.

b. OECD member countries are finding that there is a gap between how their public sectors are, and how the interests of the nation need them to be now or in the future, and a common response seems to be the attempt to promote a certain kind of leadership.

c. Despite the crucial role played by leadership, for a variety of reasons the OECD does not see leadership ever becoming a “hot topic” in public management.

d. The leadership development strategies of OECD members are spread across a wide spectrum, ranging from countries with centralized systems (where future leaders are identified and nurtured from the early stage) to countries which use “market-type” approaches to developing and securing leaders.

e. All of a-d are reasonably valid statements.

Page created by: Ian Clark, last modified on 2 May 2017.

Image: CBRE, at http://www.cbre.us/services/globalcorporateservices/Pages/public-institutions-education-services.aspx, accessed 5 August 2016.